a) Make inferences about a population based on a sample
b) Test hypotheses about relationships between variables
c) Summarize and present data in a meaningful way
d) Predict future outcomes based on past trends
e) Determine the cause-and-effect relationship between variables
Which of the following is an example of a continuous variable?
a) Number of hospital admissions in a day
b) Number of children in a family
c) Blood pressure reading
d) Gender (male/female)
e) Type of occupation
The difference between a population and a sample is that:
a) A population is always larger than a sample
b) A sample is always representative of the population
c) A population includes all members of a defined group, while a sample is a subset of that group
d) A population is used for inferential statistics, while a sample is used for descriptive statistics
e) There is no difference between the two
Which of the following is NOT a measure of central tendency?
a) Mean
b) Median
c) Mode
d) Range
e) All of the above are measures of central tendency
The process of drawing conclusions about a population based on a sample is called:
a) Descriptive statistics
b) Data collection
c) Inferential statistics
d) Sampling
e) Data analysis
Which type of variable allows for ranking or ordering of categories?
a) Nominal
b) Ordinal
c) Interval
d) Ratio
e) Continuous
The collection, organization, summarization, analysis, and interpretation of data is the definition of:
a) Biostatistics
b) Statistics
c) Epidemiology
d) Public Health
e) Data Science
A characteristic that takes on different values in different persons, places, or things is called a
a) Variable
b) Data
c) Statistic
d) Parameter
e) Constant
Which of the following is an example of a qualitative variable?
a) Age
b) Weight
c) Marital status
d) Blood pressure
e) Temperature
A numerical value that describes a population is called:
a) Parameter
b) Statistic
c) Variable
d) Data
e) Constant
A researcher is studying the average BMI of adults in a city. The average BMI calculated from a sample of 1000 adults is:
a) Parameter
b) Statistic
c) Variable
d) Data
e) Constant
A public health survey categorizes respondents’ income levels into “low,” “middle,” and “high.” This is an example of a (n) _____ variable.
a) Nominal
b) Ordinal
c) Interval
d) Ratio
e) Continuous
In a study on the effects of a new drug, the number of patients who experience side effects is a _____ variable.
a) Continuous
b) Discrete
c) Ordinal
d) Nominal
e) Ratio
A researcher wants to study the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Smoking status (smoker/non-smoker) is a _____ variable.
a) Nominal
b) Ordinal
c) Interval
d) Ratio
e) Continuous
The temperature measured in Celsius is an example of a (n) _____ variable.
a) Nominal
b) Ordinal
c) Interval
d) Ratio
e) Discrete
You are conducting a survey to gather information about the health behaviors of a community. You collect data on variables such as age, gender, smoking status, exercise frequency, and dietary habits. Which of these variables are categorical, and which are numerical?
In a clinical trial, researchers are testing a new medication to lower blood pressure. They measure the blood pressure of participants before and after the treatment. What type of variable is blood pressure in this context?
a) Nominal
b) Ordinal
c) Interval
d) Ratio
A study is investigating the association between obesity and diabetes. Body Mass Index (BMI) is used to classify individuals as underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese. What type of variable is BMI in this scenario?
a) Nominal
b) Ordinal
c) Interval
d) Ratio
A researcher is analyzing data on the number of new COVID-19 cases reported each day in a particular region. What type of variable is the number of new cases?
a) Continuous
b) Discrete
c) Ordinal
d) Nominal
A study collects the BMI of 100 patients in a clinic. What type of statistics would be used to summarize the average BMI?
a) Inferential Statistics
b) Descriptive Statistics
c) Nominal Statistics
d) Qualitative Statistics
e) Continuous Statistics
Which of the following represents a population parameter?
a) Sample mean of a class
b) Mean weight of all children in a school
c) Standard deviation of a sample
d) Sample median
e) Confidence interval of a sample
In a survey, 200 adults are asked about their smoking status. What type of variable is smoking status?
a) Continuous
b) Discrete
c) Nominal
d) Ordinal
e) Interval
What is the probability of randomly selecting a person who has blood pressure categorized as “high” if 25 out of 100 individuals have high blood pressure?
a) 0.15
b) 25
c) 0.50
d) 0.75
e) 1.00
A researcher calculates the average age of a sample of patients. What is this value called?
a) Population Parameter
b) Ordinal Data
c) Sample Statistic
d) Nominal Data
e) Continuous Data
If a dataset has a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 5, what is the z-score for a value of 60?
a) 1.5
b) 0
c) 2.5
d) 3.0
e) 4.0
What type of data is recorded when measuring the heights of students in a class?
a) Nominal
b) Ordinal
c) Continuous
d) Discrete
e) Categorical
In biostatistics, which type of variable is characterized by having whole numbers only?
a) Continuous
b) Interval
c) Discrete
d) Ratio
e) Nominal
A health survey classifies weight into categories: underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. What type of variable is this?
a) Continuous
b) Ordinal
c) Discrete
d) Nominal
e) Interval
A clinical trial finds that 60 out of 150 patients responded to a new treatment. What is the response rate?
a) 20%
b) 30%
c) 40%
d) 50%
e) 60%
In a dataset, if the mode is 20, the median is 25, and the mean is 30, what does this suggest about the distribution?
a) Symmetric
b) Positively Skewed
c) Negatively Skewed
d) Bimodal
e) Uniform
Which of the following represents a continuous variable?
a) Number of children in a family
b) Number of patients admitted per day
c) Blood pressure in mmHg
d) Number of teeth
e) Number of hospital beds
If a study reports that the mean age of participants is 35 years with a margin of error of ±3 years, what is the confidence interval?
a) 30-40 years
b) 32-38 years
c) 33-37 years
d) 34-36 years
e) 31-39 years
What type of measurement scale is used when categorizing a variable as “Male” or “Female”?
a) Ordinal
b) Nominal
c) Interval
d) Ratio
e) Continuous
Which of the following best describes inferential statistics?
a) Summarizing data
b) Making predictions about a population based on a sample
c) Measuring central tendency
d) Displaying data in graphs
e) Sorting data into categories
Which type of data would be best visualized using a bar chart?
a) Continuous data
b) Categorical data
c) Interval data
d) Ratio data
e) Discrete data
In hypothesis testing, what does the p-value represent?
a) The mean of the sample
b) The probability of observing the data given that the null hypothesis is true
c) The standard deviation of the sample
d) The correlation between variables
e) The effect size
Which branch of statistics deals with collecting and presenting data without making any conclusions?
a) Inferential
b) Descriptive
c) Predictive
d) Causal
e) Analytical
What is the primary purpose of random sampling in research?
a) To increase the sample size
b) To reduce the variability
c) To ensure each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected
d) To increase the mean
e) To control confounding variables
Which of the following best describes the concept of a ‘variable’ in biostatistics?
a) A characteristic that can vary among individuals
b) A fixed value in a population
c) A constant number
d) A single measurement
e) An outcome of interest
What is the main reason for using a control group in an experiment?
a) To randomize the study
b) To compare results against a standard or baseline
c) To increase sample size
d) To ensure variability
e) To establish a hypothesis
Which type of error occurs when a true null hypothesis is incorrectly rejected?