Gastritis

Definition:

Gastritis, an inflammation of the gastric mucosa, is one of the most problems affecting the stomach. Gastritis refers to the diffuse of localized response of the gastric mucosa to injury or infection.

Types of Gastritis:

  1. Acute Gastritis
  2. Chronic Gastritis

Acute Gastritis:

Definition:

Acute Gastritis is short-term inflammatory process that can be initiated by numerous factors:

  1. Excessive alcoholism
  2. Drug affects (Aspirin, NSAIDS, and Corticosteroids)
  3. Stress
  4. Trauma
  5. Contaminated food: (Staphylococcus, Salmonella) Clinical features:
  6. Anorexia
  7. Nausea
  8. Vomiting
  9. Abdominal cramps
  10. Epigastria pain
  11. Fever

Medical Management:

  1. Antacid
  2. Histamine 2 receptors antagonists (to reduce HCl secretion)
  3. IV fluid & electrolytes

Chronic Gastritis

Definition:

Chronic Gastritis, a long-term inflammatory process that can be initiated by numerous factors:

  1. Reflux of bile salts from the duodenum
  2. Repeated episodes of the acute Gastritis
  3. Kinds of Chronic Gastritis:

Types A Gastritis:

Type A is believed to be auto-immune in nature & involves all of the acid-secreting gastric tissue, particularly the tissue in the fundus. Circular antibodies are produced that attack the gastric parietal cells and eventually may cause pernicious anemia from loss of the intrinsic factors.

  • Pernicious anemia =
  • Intrinsic factor =

Types B Gastritis:

Type B is related to presence of Helico-bacter pylori (H-pylori). It primarily involves the antrum of the stomach. There is less reduction in the acid-secretion, gastrin levels remains normal & Vitamin B- 12 absorption is rarely impaired.

Clinical features:

  1. Anemia
  2. Anorexia
  3. Nausea
  4. Vomiting
  5. Abdominal cramps
  6. Epigastric pain
  7. Fever

Medical management:

  1. Anti-bacterial
  2. Antacids
  3. Histamine 2 receptors antagonists
  4. IV fluid & electrolytes
  5. Or new triple therapy as amoxicillin, Clarithromycin, Omeprazole X 7 days
  6. Regular Inj: Cobolmin

Investigations:

  1. Gastroscopy
  2. Doudenoscopy
  3. Biopsy
  4. Pylori test
  5. CBC
  6. Stool test

Nursing Management:

  1. Patient should be put NPO status to support healing of the mucosa
  2. Slowly advancement of liquids & returns to a normal diet
  3. Health education to prevent bacterial food borne illness
  4. Wash hands before handling food
  5. Never leave perishable foods un-refrigerated for more than 2 hours-less in hot water.

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