Peritonitis is defined as local or generalized inflammation of the peritoneum, the membrane lining the abdomen that covers the viscera.
Classification of the peritonitis:
- Primary Peritonitis
- Secondary Peritonitis
- Acute Peritonitis
- Chronic Peritonitis
- Septic Peritonitis
- Aseptic Peritonitis
- Bacteria Secondary Peritonitis
- Chemical irritants
- Risk factors, which may cause Peritonitis: o Appendicitis
o Perforated Peptic Ulcer
o Diverticulitis (Small herniation of mucosal lining of GI Tract) o Pelvic inflammation
o Bowel obstruction
o Surgical complication o Pancreatitis
- Abdominal pain (typical sign)
- Tenderness in abdomen (Universal sign)
- Muscular rigidity
- Spasm (Major sign)
- Abdominal distension
- Hypo-volumic shock
- Intra-abdominal abscess
- Paralytic ileus
- Organ failure
- Serum electrolyte
- Abdominal X-ray
- Culture of fluid
- CT scan
- Serum amylase
- IV fluid administration
- NG suction
- Blood pressure monitoring. The patient’s blood pressure is monitored by arterial line if shock is present.
- Medications. Administration of analgesic and anti emetics can be done as prescribed.
- Pain management. Analgesics and positioning could help in decreasing pain.
- I&O monitoring. Accurate recording of all intake and output could help in the assessment of fluid replacement.
- IV fluids. The nurse administers and closely monitors IV fluids.
- Drainage monitoring. The nurse must monitor and record the character of the drainage postoperatively.