Renal Calculi

Renal calculi are crystalline of minerals around the organic matrix such as: pus, blood or devitalized tissue. Most stones consist of calcium salts or magnesium-ammonium phosphate; the remainders are cystine or uric acid stones.

Etiology:

  1. Metabolic
  2. Diet
  3. Genetic factor
  4. Life style (Sedentary)
  5. Actual idiopathic
  6. Long term use of antacids, Vita-D, Vita-C

Clinical features:

  1. Abdominal pain
  2. Nausea
  3. Vomiting
  4. Colic pain
  5. Moist skin
  6. Urinary infection
  7. Fever
  8. Chills

Investigations:

  1. KUB X-ray
  2. Retrograde pyelography
  3. Ultrasound
  4. CT scan
  5. Cytoscopy
  6. Urinanalysis
  7. Serum Calcium level
  8. Serum Uric acid level

Medical Management:

  1. Analgesic
  2. Calcium oxalate
  3. Antimicrobial agents
  4. Surgical Management:
  5. Ureterolithotomy
  6. Pyelilithotomy
  7. Nephrolithotomy

Nursing Management:

  1. Increase for hydration
  2. Administer of the antimicrobial agents
  3. Reduce anxiety
  4. High fluid intake at least 3000ml per day.

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