- Infection of the bone and the bone marrow.
- Caused by direct invasion from an open wound or a systemic infection.
- Caused by lowered body resistance and decreased blood flow to the bones
- Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone, bone marrow, and surrounding soft tissue.
- The most common causative organism is Staphylococcus aureus.
- Inflammatory response occurs initially, with increased vascularization and edema.
- Escherichia coli
- Neisseria gonorrhea
- Salmonella typhi
- Staphylococcus aureus (most common)
CLINICAL & DIAGNOSTIC FINDINGS
- Fever (systemic and local)
- Pain and lack of desire to use affected limb
- Culture of drainage revealing infectious microorganism
- Elevated WBC and neutrophils (WBC: 5000-10000/mm3; Neutrophils: 50-70 %)
- Weakness, headache, nausea and vomiting
- Redness, edema and inflammation
- History of trauma
- CBC- WBC may be elevated (indicates presence of active infection).
- ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) – may be elevated (indicates inflammatory process).
- Bone Scan (indicates infected bone).
- Bone lesion biopsy or culture (may reveal the causative organism).
- Assess site of inflammation.
- Assess drainage from irrigating tube.
- Assist in positioning to comfort.
- Maintain bed rest.
- Assist in obtaining blood specimen for culture.
- Administer antibiotics and pain medications.
- Offer fluids and monitor fluid status.
- Provide divertional activities.
- Intensive intravenous (IV) antibiotics; oral antibiotic therapy for 6 to 8 weeks.
- Immobilization of affected area.
- Surgical debridement may be necessary.
- Hyperbaric oxygen therapy to stimulate circulation and healing.
- Teach self-care.
- Wound care.
- Self-administration of antibiotics analgesics.
- Use of ambulatory aids.
- Complete continuity of care.