Description: ankle.jpg A Sprain is a torn ligament. The area around the affected joint becomes Swollen, and painful. Sprains occur most in the ankles, wrist, fingers and knees.

Sign and Symptoms of Sprain

  • Pain in the joint
  • Redness and swelling
  • Restricted or no movement due to pain
  • Discoloration (Contusion)


A Strain is an overstretching or tear of muscle

Sign and Symptoms of Strain

  • Pain in the joint
  • Redness and swelling
  • Restricted or no movement due to pain

Management of Sprain & Strain [ R.I.C.E]

  • Rest

    • Steady and Support the Injured part in an comfortable position
  • Ice
    • Place Ice pack over a cloth on the injured part for about 10-20 minutes to reduce swelling and ease pain
    • Do not place Ice directly on the Skin
  • Compression
    • Use a Crepe Bandage to apply pressure over the Injured part
  • Elevation
    • Raise and support the Injured area to reduce swelling
    • Seek further medical assistance if necessary


  • Is a complete loss of congruity between the articulating surfaces of a joint. The bones taking part in the articulation are displaced relative to one another.


  • In a subluxation the articulating surfaces of a joint are no longer congruous, but loss of contact is incomplete.
  • The term is often used to describe the early stages in a condition which may proceed to complete dislocation.

Types of dislocations

  • According to the severity: If incomplete it is called subluxation and if complete it is called dislocation.
  • According to Anatomy: Anterior, posterior, superior, inferior, central or combination likes anteroinferior etc.
  • According to co-existing conditions: If it is associated with fracture it is called fracture dislocation.

Treatment of dislocations

  • As it obvious the mainstay of treating dislocation remains reduction of the dislocation and maintaining the same by either strapping, plaster casts, splints etc. until the surrounding soft tissues like capsules and ligaments have healed.
  • Reduction must be checked radio logically immediately after reduction and from time to time as needed.
  • A very important point is to achieve a congruous reduction.

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