CULTURE

A) CULTURE:

A culture is a sum of total learned behaviour, traits, values, belief, language, laws and technology, characteristics of the member of a particular society.Culture is the cultivated behaviour i.e. the totality of mans learned experience, socially transmitted to one generation to another.Culture is a behaviour acquired through social learning.

B) ELEMENTS OF CULTURE:

The followings are the elements of culture:

  1. Cultural trait.
  2. Cultural complex.
  3. Cultural pattern.
  4. Cultural theme.
  5. Cultural configuration.
  6. Cultural ethos.

1) CULTURAL TRAIT:

It is the simplest unit of the culture and it may be material or non material. Some examples of material culture traits are:

  1. A Nail.
  2. A Handkerchief.
  3. A Safety pin.

Some examples of non-material culture traits are:

  1. Making bed.
  2. Eating with right hand.
  3. Milking a cow.
  4. Driving to the left.
  5. Knowledge of an important drug.

2) CULTURAL COMPLEX:

When two or more cultural traits are organized together is called cultural complex E.g.

  1. Television.
  2. A watch.
  3. A political party as a Muslim league.

3) CULTURAL PATTERN:

When two or more cultural complexes are combined, they form a cultural pattern .E.g. some kind of behaviour is accepted from a person of particular age, category, sex etc…

4) CULTURAL THEME:

The combinations of two or more cultural pattern result in a cultural theme E.g. all human being are equal.

5) CULTURAL CONFIGURATION:

When two or more cultural themes are integrated, the product is known as cultural configuration E.g. Marriage system.

6) CULTURAL ETHOS:

Cultural ethos is the central point of culture. E.g. Pakistan culture is religious.

C) TYPE OF CULTURE:

  1. Material.
  2. Non-material.
  3. Ideal.
  4. Real.
  5. Simple.
  6. Complex.
  7. Organic.
  8. Inorganic.
  9. Super organic.
  10. Sub-culture.
  11. Organization.

1) MATERIAL:

It is the type of culture related to physical objects E.g. Tools, machinery, books etc.

2) NON-MATERIAL:

It is type of culture related to those things which are can not observe E.g. tradition, customs, writing, language etc.

3) IDEAL:

It is presented as a pattern to the people and it is seen or written in books and speeches.

4) REAL:

It is presented by the people in their social life. E.g. cheating and stealing are commonly seen in our society.

5) SIMPLE:

It is based on non industrial social life. E.g., culture in our rural areas.

6) COMPLEX:

In this type education, technology, and industry are in their progressive stage E.g. Western culture.

7) ORGANIC:

It includes the study of biological science E.g. Zoology, Botany.

8 ) INORGANIC:

It includes the study of physical science E.g. Physics, Chemistry etc.

9) SUPER ORGANIC:

It includes the study of social sciences E.g. Sociology.

10) SUB-CULTURAL:

It is a culture of a group of people in society and such people have one or more cultural traits common in their pattern of life. E.g. Sindhi. Punjabi, Blochi, are sub-culture in Pakistan.

11) ORGANIZATION:

It is a common conception shared by the member of an organization.Characteristics in the Organization:

  1. Individual.
  2. Autonomy.
  3. Structure.
  4. Reward.
  5. Consideration.
  6. Conflict.

 

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