Health Advantages of Sex

Sex is a vital part of your life.

Sex and sexuality are natural parts of existence. Aside from reproduction, sex may be about closeness and pleasure. Sexual activity, also known as penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) or masturbation, can provide numerous unexpected advantages to many aspects of your life:

  • physical
  • intellectual
  • emotional
  • psychological
  • social

Sexual health is more than just preventing illnesses and unexpected pregnancies. According to the American Sexual Health Association, it is also about accepting that sex may be an essential part of your life.

How does sex help your body?

This study reveals that sex can be beneficial to cardiovascular health in young men and women. Though sex isn’t sufficient exercise in and of itself, it can be called mild exercise.

Sex may provide you with a variety of advantages, including:

  • blood pressure lowering
  • calorie consumption
  • improving heart health and muscular strength lowering your chances of heart disease, stroke, and hypertension
  • enhancing libido

People who are sexually active tend to exercise more regularly and eat healthier than those who are less sexually active. Physical fitness may also increase overall sexual performance.

9 strategies to boost your sexual performance:

Healthy immune system

Persons who had regular intercourse (one to two times per week) had higher immunoglobulin A (IgA) in their saliva, according to a research of immunity in people in romantic relationships. People who had sex seldom (less than once a week) had considerably lower IgA levels.

IgA is an antibody that plays a role in disease prevention and is the first line of defence against human papillomavirus, or HPV.

Those who had sex more than three times per week, on the other hand, had the same amount of IgA as those who had infrequent sex. According to the study, worry and stress may wipe out the favourable impacts of sex.

better sleep

During an orgasm, your body produces oxytocin, generally known as the “love” or “intimacy” hormone, as well as endorphins. Sedation can result from the combination of these hormones.

Better sleep can help with:

  • a more powerful immune system
  • a higher life expectancy,
  • feeling more relaxed, and
  • having more energy during the day

Relief from headaches

According to another study, sexual activity can offer complete or partial relief from migraines and cluster headaches.

Among those who were sexually active at the time of their attacks:

  • During a migraine, 60% experienced an improvement.
  • During a migraine, 70% experienced moderate to total relief.
  • 37 percent reported relief in cluster headache symptoms.
  • 90% received moderate to total relief from cluster headaches.

How sex helps both males and females?

In males

According to a recent study, males who had more frequent penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) had a lower chance of acquiring prostate cancer.

According to one study, males who had 4.6 to 7 ejaculations each week were 36% less likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer before the age of 70. In contrast, men reported ejaculating 2.3 or less times each week on average.

Sex may potentially alter men’s mortality. One 10-year research found that males who had frequent orgasms (defined as two or more per week) had a 50% lower mortality risk than those who had sex less often.

Although the evidence is mixed, more sexual activity may improve the quality and health of your sperm, according to some studies.

In Females:

An orgasm stimulates blood flow and produces natural pain-relieving substances.

Sexual activity in women can:

  • enhance bladder control
  • ease menstruation and premenstrual cramps
  • boost fertility
  • create stronger pelvic muscles
  • assist generate more vaginal lubrication
  • may protect you against endometriosis, or the growth of tissue outside the uterus

Sex can help strengthen your pelvic floor. A stronger pelvic floor can also provide benefits such as decreased discomfort during sex and a lower risk of vaginal prolapse. According to one source, PVI can result in reflexive vaginal contractions triggered by penile thrusting.

Women who remain sexually active after menopause are less likely to get substantial vaginal atrophy, or weakening of the vaginal walls. Pain during sex and urinary symptoms might be caused by vaginal atrophy.

How does sex help your mental health?

Sexual activity, whether with a partner or masturbation, can have significant psychological and emotional advantages. Sex, like exercise, can help relieve stress and anxiety while increasing enjoyment.

According to research, sexual activity (classified as PVI) may be related to:

  • higher pleasure with your mental health
  • enhanced trust, closeness, and love in your relationships
  • better capacity to sense, recognise, and express emotions
  • reduced utilisation of your immature psychological defence system, or mental processes to decrease emotional conflict suffering`

Sexual activity may have an impact on your well-being and capacity to think as you become older. According to research, sexually active persons aged 50 to 90 had stronger memory. They were also less prone to experience depression and loneliness.

Booster of self-esteem

Sexual activity on a regular basis, whether with a partner or alone, might make you seem younger. This is attributed, in part, to the production of oestrogen during intercourse.

One study discovered a link between regular sexual activity and seeming much younger (between seven to 12 years younger). The majority of these people were likewise at ease with expressing their sexuality and sexual identity.

Social advantages

Because of oxytocin, sex can help you bond with your spouse. Oxytocin can help people form connections. You may discover that frequent, reciprocal sexual enjoyment aids in interpersonal connection.

When couples meet one other’s sexual urges, they generally report higher levels of relationship satisfaction. When you are able to communicate yourself and your sexual wants, you may notice great progress in your relationship.

What are the advantages to masturbation?

Masturbation can provide many of the same benefits as sex, but it also has its own set of benefits, which include:

  • improved sex between partners
  • better awareness of your own body
  • higher orgasmic capacity
  • improved self-esteem and body image
  • more sexual pleasure
  • therapy for sexual problems

Masturbation is regarded completely harmless and has little health hazards. There is no danger of pregnancy or sexually transmitted illnesses when done alone (STIs). According to Planned Parenthood, it improves mental health rather than mental disease or instability, as some misconceptions indicate.

Abstinence and celibacy

Sex isn’t the only factor that influences one’s health or happiness. You may live an active and happy life without having sex. The advantages of sex stem from the sensation of pleasure, which studies have shown may also be obtained by listening to music, interacting with pets, and having a strong religious beliefs. According to the National Health Service in the United Kingdom, a long-term study of nuns found that many of them lived into their 90s and beyond.

Takeaway

Sex is an essential component of existence and total well-being. Orgasms play an important role in romantic bonding. Sex can provide physical and mental advantages such as lower risk of heart disease, increased self-esteem, and more.

You can have identical results without intercourse. Other enjoyable activities, such as exercising, engaging with a pet, and maintaining a strong social network, may provide similar advantages. Sex is only one strategy to improve your overall quality of life.

However, whether sex is a part of your life because of a relationship or desire, it is critical that you be able to communicate and enjoy sexual fulfilment. When you make time for sex, you may discover relaxation and an increase in happiness.

 

Answer Key: Pre-Interview Written test for the post of Staff Nurse (BPS-16)- SPSC-2019

Sindh public service commission (SPSC)
Pre-Interview Written test for the post of Staff Nurse (BPS-16)
Question Paper: 24th August,2019

Answer key
1. C
2. B
3. B
4. A
5. C
6. C
7. A
8. C
9. A
10. A

11. C
12. B
13. B
14. D
15. C
16. B
17. A
18. C
19. D
20. B

21. A
22. D
23. A
24. C
25. D
26. B
27. B
28. B
29. C
30. C

31. C
32. D
33. B
34. B
35. A
36. B
37. C
38. B
39. B
40. B

41. B
42. C
43. C
44. D
45. A
46. D
47. D
48. B
49. B
50. A

 

For QUESTION PAPER, please click on the below link:

Pre-Interview Written test for the post of Staff Nurse (BPS-16)- SPSC-2019

 

Pre-Interview Written test for the post of Staff Nurse (BPS-16)- SPSC-2019

Sindh public service commission (SPSC)
Pre-Interview Written test for the post of Staff Nurse (BPS-16)
Question Paper: 24th August,2019

1. Synonym of “Absolute”.
(A) Half
(B) Small
(C) Complete
(D) Divide
2. The pacemaker of the heart is termed as:
(A) Atrioventricular node
(B) Sinoatrial node
(C) Left and right bundle branches
(D) Purkinje fibers
3. Which plasmodium cases “malignant malaria”?
(A) P. Vivax
(B) P. Falciparum
(C) P. Ovale
(D) P. Malaria
4. Inflammation of the tongue is termed as:
(A) Glossitis
(B) Gingivitis
(C) Stomatitis
(D) Parotitis
5. Choose the correct option: Ahmed is more responsible________ any _______________boy in his class.
(A) Then, some
(B) Then, some
(C) Than, other
(D) None of these
6. A healthy person can donate blood in a:
(A) Six or seven
(B) Five or six
(C) Three or four
(D) Two of three
7. Where does fertilization of an ovum by sperm usually take place?
(A) In the fallopian tube
(B) In the vagina
(C) In the uterus
(D) In the ovary
8. The world’s tallest mountain peak is in:
(A) China
(B) Pakistan
(C) Nepal
(D) India
9. Hypokalemia is the condition if serum __________ level is less than normal
(A) Potassium
(B) Sodium
(C) Calcium
(D) Chlorine
10. Which of the following colored container must be used for discarding human anatomical waste in hospital?
(A) Yellow
(B) Red
(C) Blue
(D) Black

11. From among the underlined words below find the error, if any: Had (A) he been (B) there, he would(C) grappled (D) with the situation.
A B C D
12. When helping a client who is recovering from a stroke to walk, the nurse should assist:
(A) On the client’s strong side
(B) On the client’s weak side
(C) From behind the client
(D) With the wheelchair
13. The Suez Canal is in:
(A) Panama
(B) Egypt
(C) Sweden
(D) Switzerland
14. Which temperature is considered most accurate?
(A) Oral
(B) Axillary
(C) Groin
(D) Rectal
15. Hygiene is a word derived from?
(A) Latin
(B) English
(C) Greek
(D) French

16. One teaspoon contains:
(A) 2 ml
(B) 5 ml
(C) 10 ml
(D) 15 ml
17. The nerve, which carries messages from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands is:
(A) Motor nerve
(B) Sensory nerve
(C) Mixed nerve
(D) Autonomic nerve
18. Which type of precautions should be nurse implement for the client diagnosed with septic meningitis?
(A) Standard precaution
(B) Airborne precaution
(C) Contact precaution
(D) Droplet precaution
19. Most important aspect of hand washing is:
(A) Time
(B) Type of soap
(C) Surface tension
(D) Friction
20. Which of the following diseases is inheritable?
(A) Leukaemia
(B) Colour blindness
(C) Malignancy
(D) Hepatitis
21. Precautions used when caring for a rubella patient is:
(A) Droplet
(B) Contact
(C) Universal
(D) Hand washing
22. It is appropriate for a nurse to share the information regarding a client’s status with:
(A) Any one the nurse sees fit
(B) The client’s family members
(C) The client’s roommate
(D) The staff on the next shift
23. A method of making the victim to breath passively is:
(A) Artificial respiration
(B) Spontaneous respiration
(C) Deep breathing
(D) Kusmal breathing
24. Deficiency of __________________ in blood causes simple goiter.
(A) Sodium
(B) Iron
(C) Iodine
(D) Calcium
25. The nurse is preparing to take vital sign in an alert client admitted to the hospital with dehydration secondary to vomiting and diarrhea. What is the best method used to assess the client’s temperature?
(A) Oral
(B) Axillary
(C) Rectal
(D) Heat sensitive tape

26. The photoreceptors in eye are present in the:
(A) Iris
(B) Retina
(C) Sclera
(D) Cornea
27. Tendon connects:
(A) Cartilage with muscles
(B) Bone with muscles
(C) Ligament with muscles
(D) Bone with bone
28. The prescription orders are 0.125 mg digoxin orally. Tablets containing 0.25 mg is available. How many tablets will you administer?
(A) 1 tablet
(B) 1/2 Tablet
(C) 2 Tablets
(D) ¼ tablet
29. Which of the following is intravascular fluid?
(A) Lymph
(B) Pleural fluid
(C) Plasma
(D) Synovial fluid
30. The highest concentration of HIV virus is found in?
(A) Saliva
(B) CSF
(C) Blood
(D) Semen
31. Antonym of “Barren”:
(A) Radiant
(B) Besiege
(C) Fertile
(D) Full
32. To best communicate with a client who is totally deaf, the nurse should:
(A) Smile frequently and speak loudly
(B) Smile often and talk rapidly
(C) Avoid eye contact
(D) Write out information
33. The capital of Canada is:
(A) Toronto
(B) Ottawa
(C) Ontario
(D) Montreal
34. Information given by the sufferer about his illness is termed as:
(A) Sign
(B) Symptoms
(C) Observation
(D) Diagnosis
35. Which of the following has lowest pH?
(A) Gastric juice
(B) Hepatic bile
(C) Pancreatic juice
(D) Diagnosis

36. When a client has left-sided weakness, what part of a sweater is put on first?
(A) Both sleeves
(B) Left sleeves
(C) Client’s choice
(D) Right sleeve
37. Choose the correct option: “Zulfiqar _____________ this house last year”.
(A) Sells
(B) Sell
(C) Sold
(D) Is selling
38. Best method of disinfection of hospital waste is:
(A) Fumigation
(B) Incineration
(C) Sunlight
(D) Burying
39. The last sense a dying client will lose is:
(A) Smell
(B) Hearing
(C) Taste
(D) Sight
40. A thousand ml. of Normal Saline is to be infused in 8 hours. What should be the rate of flow pert minute?
(A) 20 drops
(B) 30 drops
(C) 40 drops
(D) 50 drops
41. Route of transmission of Hepatitis B is:
(A) Oral
(B) Potential
(C) Faeco oral
(D) Contaminated water
42. Where is erythropoietin hormone synthesized?
(A) Spleen
(B) Liver
(C) Kidney
(D) Thyroid
43. A client needs to be repositioned but is heavy and the nurse is not sure she can move the client alone. The nurse should:
(A) Try to move the client alone
(B) Have the family do it
(C) Ask another nurse to help
(D) Go on to another task
44. Where is the tomb of Mughal Emperor Jahangir?
(A) Multan
(B) Karachi
(C) Peshawar
(D) Lahore
45. Mode of transmission of Hepatitis E is?
(A) Water borne
(B) Blood borne
(C) Air borne
(D) Trans placental

46. The international court of Justice is located in:
(A) New York
(B) London
(C) Geneva
(D) The Hague
47. BCG (Bacillus Calmatte Guerine) vaccination is injected to get immunity from:
(A) Polio
(B) Cholera
(C) Small pox
(D) Tuberculosis
48. Cortisone is ___________.
(A) Protein
(B) Steroid
(C) Carbohydrate
(D) Nucleic acid
49. Hearing receptor cells are located in ______________.
(A) Ossecles
(B) Organ of corti
(C) Oval windows
(D) Eardrum
50. Which of the following is a first-line drug used for pain management?
(A) Acetaminophen
(B) Clonidine
(C) Morphine
(D) Ketamine

 

For ANSWER KEY, please click on the below link:

Answer Key: Pre-Interview Written test for the post of Staff Nurse (BPS-16)- SPSC-2019

Is it Possible to Get Pregnant Without Having Sex? You Might Be Surprised by the Answer

Women are claiming that this has happened to them; are they telling the truth?

Everyone who has taken a basic sex education class is aware that having unprotected sex carries the risk of becoming pregnant. As a result, it’s difficult to believe that a woman can become pregnant without having penetrative sex. It turns out that it isn’t, and some people online claim that it happened to them.

Sammi Isabel’s story was told in a TikTok video, which quickly went viral. Isabel stated in the video that she became crampy at her prom and discovered her period was a week late. Despite the fact that she was a virgin at the time, she took a pregnancy test—and it came back positive. “And that’s how I have a 5-year-old son,” she captioned the photo.

Isabel insisted in a later TikTok that she wasn’t making up her story. “I just want people to know it’s a possibility,” she explained.

Isabel is far from the first woman to claim something similar happened to her. Wathoni Anyassi revealed on her YouTube channel LoloTalks that she became pregnant as a virgin as well. “I thought, ‘Wow, pregnant.'” ‘How did this happen?’ she recalls thinking in her video.

It’s easy to dismiss these stories as hoaxes. Ob-gyns, on the other hand, swear that these so-called virgin pregnancies do exist.

More women than you might think have gotten pregnant without having sex.

According to a data analysis published in the BMJ in 2013, 45 of the 7,870 women who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health said they had a virgin pregnancy that wasn’t related to reproductive assistance, such as IVF or intrauterine insemination (IUI). The researchers discovered that these reports were more common among women who signed chastity pledges or whose parents didn’t talk to them about sex and birth control much, if at all.

A major caveat, according to the researchers: getting pregnant without having sex is usually difficult to prove. “Even with numerous enhancements and safeguards to optimise reporting accuracy,” they wrote, “researchers may still face challenges in the collection and analysis of self-reported data on potentially sensitive topics.”

However, Lauren Streicher, MD, a clinical obstetrics and gynaecology professor at Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine, tells Health that many clinicians have observed this. “Many obstetricians have experiences about delivering someone who claims to be a virgin with an unbroken hymen,” she explains. “There are unquestionably virgin births.”

The use of an intact hymen—a small amount of additional tissue around the vaginal opening—to prove virginity is controversial, because the hymen can rip or stretch over time as a result of wearing tampons, having gynaecological exams, and engaging in strenuous activity. Dr. Streicher believes that if a lady has an intact hymen and claims she’s never had penetrative sex, her virgin pregnancy narrative is more likely.

Other ob-gyns agree that this is a thing. “Indeed, this is feasible,” says Mary Jane Minkin, MD, a clinical professor of obstetrics and gynaecology and reproductive sciences at Yale Medical School.

“The danger of getting pregnant in this method is very low because sperm can only live for a brief time outside of the body,” women’s health expert Jessica Shepherd, M.D., an ob-gyn in Dallas, Texas, tells Health. “However, it is still feasible and has happened in women.”

Okay, but how can you get pregnant if you don’t have sex?

There must be sperm and an egg, among other things, for a pregnancy to develop. Those two are normally associated with penetrative intercourse, but Dr. Shepherd points out that they can also be associated with messing around.

“This can happen when sperm get into the vagina—for example, if the male ejaculates at the vaginal opening, or if a partner’s erect penis comes into contact with the body near the vagina,” she explains. Dr. Minkin believes the initial few drops of seminal fluid (the fluid that carries sperm out of a man’s penis) “have lots of sperm,” adding, “they simply need to make their way up into the vagina and up to the cervix.”

According to Dr. Minkin, virgin pregnancies are more likely to occur in younger people who are more fertile. “Women need to know that this is clearly a genuine issue and that pregnancies may occur without penetration,” Dr. Streicher adds. All you need is sperm at the vaginal opening—they’re terrific swimmers.”

So, what can people do to avoid a virgin pregnancy?

FWIW, this is an uncommon occurrence, so don’t lie awake at night wondering that you’re pregnant if you didn’t go all the way. Having said that, there is enough of a danger of becoming pregnant without having intercourse that you should probably take measures in the future.

If your partner’s penis or semen comes into touch with or goes close to your vagina, even if it doesn’t go inside, “use the same contraception that you would use if you were having penetrative intercourse,” Dr. Streicher says. “It’s really no different.”

Barrier birth-control techniques (such as condoms containing spermicide) can be beneficial, according to Dr. Shepherd. Plan B is also a possibility if you’re not sure how safe you were when you were fooling about, according to her. Dr. Minkin adds that long-acting reversible contraception, such as an IUD or a birth control implant, can assist give protection when you don’t want to worry about birth control.

Again, this isn’t very frequent, and many women have cheated on their boyfriends without becoming pregnant. Even so, it’s crucial to be aware that there is a danger.

Test or Examination for Virginity

Evidence-Based Guiding Note

What exactly is virginity testing?

The inspection of the female genitalia to determine if the examinee has had or has become accustomed to sexual intercourse is known as ‘virginity testing.’ Some tribes conduct ‘virginity testing’ to determine which women or girls are ‘virgins’ (i.e. have not had sexual intercourse). As part of the sexual assault examination of female rape survivors, some medical practitioners perform ‘virginity testing.’

The two most popular ‘virginity testing’ procedures are visual inspection of the hymen for size or rips and two-finger vaginal insertion. The goal of the latter is to assess the size of the introitus or the laxity of the vaginal wall, as well as the existence of the hymen, which is a thin membrane in the vaginal entrance that some cultures believe remains intact until women have sexual intercourse. However, research suggests that this form of testing may not give reliable findings since the existence and characteristics of the hymen vary from woman to woman and the membrane can rupture or stretch during daily activities other than sexual intercourse.

 

What are the consequences of ‘Virginity Testing’?

‘Virginity testing’ causes physical, physiological and social harm.

Physical harm: In the case of survivors of abuse, ‘virginity exams’ may cause physical injury to the women and girls being evaluated, including worsening existing injuries. Harm may also come from family who, as a result of a perceived ‘failed’ test, may harm or murder the lady or girl in the sake of ‘honour.’ As a result of the ‘virginity testing,’ some women or girls have self-harmed or tried suicide.

Psychological harm: Women and girls who have had ‘virginity tests’ have reported tremendous dread and anxiety before the test, as well as shouting, weeping, and fainting during the exam. Women and girls have also experienced long-term repercussions such as self-hatred, loss of self-esteem, depression, a sense of invasion of privacy, and re-victimization (for survivors of sexual assault).

Social harm: ‘Virginity testing’ is frequently connected with damaging traditional and cultural traditions that subject women and girls to stigma, humiliation, and dishonour in front of their families and communities. Women and girls might face ostracism or even death if they have (or are suspected of having) sexual relations outside of the rules enforced by society, such as before marriage. Furthermore, in certain societies, early marriage is utilised as a type of erroneously understood “protective” strategy to prevent the humiliation and penalties of a girl who had sexual relations before to marriage. As a result, some girls may be married off early in order to prevent any form of sexual activity before to marriage.

 

Medical Relevance: is ‘Virginity Testing’ a Determinant for Vaginal Intercourse?

According to a 2014 WHO article, the intrusive and demeaning “virginity test” or “two-finger test,” which is still employed in some countries to “verify” whether a woman or girl is a virgin, has “no scientific basis.” “The WHO guideline endorses the generally established medical position that ‘virginity tests’ are meaningless” and give no proof of whether a woman or a girl has had sexual intercourse or has been raped.

In reality, some women are born without a hymen, and the membrane can burst or stretch as a result of other activities like as athletics and weight lifting, among others.

The vaginal hymen is part of the vulva, or external genitalia, and is placed 1-2 cm within the vaginal entrance. Its structure is similar to that of the vagina in that it resembles a ruffled wreath and is made up of folds of mucous tissue that can be firmly or loosely folded. The form, size, colour, and flexibility of the hymen vary across women and during a woman’s life, depending on age, stage of sexual development, and hormone levels.

Talking About ‘Virginity Testing’ with Women and Girls

In some of these Syrian communities, young girls and women contact medical institutions and request ‘virginity testing.’ Many physicians find it difficult to deny when this occurs; they believe that if the request comes from the lady or girl herself, it is their obligation to do the test. It is critical to note that regardless of who demands the examination, the medical (in) validity of the test, as well as the human rights consequences, remain unchanged. Furthermore, the grounds for such a request are rooted in power disparities between men and women, as well as gendered cultural norms.

The individual requesting the test is most likely unable to fully exercise her right to freedom of choice, and the pressure placed on her to establish her ‘virginity’ is a violation of her rights in and of itself.

It is also vital that women and girls are targeted with awareness-raising messages in order to empower them and prevent them from feeling compelled to engage in this destructive activity.

Doctors, midwives, nurses, and psychosocial workers who hear these requests should perform the following:

  • Welcome the woman pleasantly, make her feel at ease, and ensure her that everything she says them will be kept private.
  • Determine the cause (why the woman thinks she needs such a test). Listening actively and respectfully to the woman or girl may result in the discovery of an abusive or dangerous scenario that must be handled with according to protocol.
  • Share with the lady the reasons why the test is not scientifically trustworthy, why it is a practise that must be ended, and specifics about its harmful practises (i.e. creating shame and fear to enforce control over women and girls).
  • Do not do the test; instead, assist the woman or girl in identifying alternate solutions (such as referral to case workers and devising safety plans) to the position she is in, ensuring her safety and security at all times.

Because virginity is not a medical condition, a medical examination is not necessary nor beneficial, and it may be both uncomfortable and detrimental.

Helping Women and Girls Who Have Been Subjected to ‘Virginity Testing’

Women and girls who are subjected to ‘virginity testing’ will respond differently to the examination, based on a variety of circumstances such as their age, current coping strategies, and/or social standing. Organizations should explore support interventions on a case-by-case basis and in accordance with the interests of the women or girls. Organizations with continuing case management programmes can guide women and girls who have disclosed having had a “virginity test” through several processes. Medical and emotional care, at a minimum, should be offered to these women and girls, either directly or through referrals to service providers delivering GBV-focused services.

Virginity and Pregnancy

Content
1 Virginity
2 Definitions
3 Hymen
4 Medico-Legal Aspect of Virginity
5 Pregnancy
6 Medico-Legal Aspect of Pregnancy

VIRGIN:
A virgin is a woman who has not experienced sexual intercourse.
Virgin term is derived from a latin word Virgo or Maiden, which means sexually inexperienced woman ( virgo intacta)

VIRGINITY
Virginity is the state of being Virgin.
Defloration
Latin Term – de:flore, flower and away: Rupture of hymen by sexual intercourse to the plucking of flower.
Defloration means loss of virginity
Marriage
It is a contract between man and woman which implies physical union by coitus.
Divorce
Divorce means dissolution of previously valid marriage
Chastity
It does not imply virginity
Chastity derived from a Latin word’ castitas meaning cleanliness or purity.
Hymenoplasty
It is an operation for repairing ruptured hymen. It will restore to its intact estate.
Hymenorrhaphy
• ‘Hymen’ is a Greek term meaning membrane and ‘Raphe’ means suturing:
• so, suturing of ruptured hymen is Hymenorrhaphy.
Hymenotomy
It is a surgical procedure to correct imperforate or septate Hymen.

 

CONCEPTS

The question of virginity arises in cases of-

1.Nullity of marriage:
• When either party was under age at the time of marriage
• One party was of unsoundmind or mental defective at the time of marriage
• Either party was already validly married,
• When female was pregnant by another man at the time of marriage or
• where has not been comummuted due to impotence or wilful refusal.

 

2.Divorce
The ground of the divorce are:
• Adultery,
• Incurable mental illness,
• Husband found guilty of rape,sodomy or bestality,
• Incurable leprosy
• Incurable venereal disease,
• deserted petitioners for two year continuously.
• Not heard for years and
• Divorce by mutual consent on the ground of living separately for one year or more

 

HYMEN
The Hymen is a fold of mucous membrane about 1mm thick, derived from the posterior vaginal wall, situated at the vaginal outlet.
Types of Hymen :
1.Annular Hymen: The opening is oval and situated near the centre of the membrane
2.Semilunar or Crescentic Hymen: It is commonest type of hymen in which the opening placed anteriorly.
3.Cribriform Hymen: There are several hymenal opening
4.Septate Hymen: Two lateral opening which is separated either partially or completely by a thin strip of tissue.
5.Vertical Hymen: The opening in the hymen is vertical.
6.Infantile Hymen: A small linear opening in the middle of hymen
7.Imperforate Hymen: No Hymenal opening present.
8.Fimbriated Hymen: This type of hymen is also called Frilly Edged Hymen’.

Causes of Rupture of Hymen
1.Act of coitus: Sexual inter course is the commonest cause of rupture of Hymen.
However in some cases Hymen remains intact inspite of Virgin, repeated sexual intercourse, such condition is called False
2.Accident: A fall on a projecting substance.
3.Foreign Body: Sola pith is introduced into vagina for rendering very young girl fit for sexual intercourse is called Aptae Virus.
4.Masturbation: Specially, if practiced with some large foreign body.
5.Surgical Procedure: Artificial maneuvers and gynecological examinations and introduction of instrument for medical examination.
6.SanitaryTampons: Insertion of sanitary tampon
7.Ulceration: Due to diphtheria and other diseases
8.Scratches: Due to irritation of parts the cause is lack of cleanliness.

Medico Legal Aspects
1.The presence of an intact Hymen is not an absolute sign of virginity. With an intact hymen there are true virgin or false virgin.
The principal signs of virginity are an intact Hymen, a normal condition of the fourchette and posterior commissure and a narrow vagina with rugosity of wall.
2. After repeated sexual intercourse, tears are present at 5’o clock and 7o’ clock position. After the birth of child Hymen is completely lost and small round flashy tags are formed called carunculae hymenales or ‘carunculae myrtiformes’.

 

PREGNANCY
Pregnancy is the carrying of one or more embryo or feotus inside the womb of a female.
The condition of having a developing embryo or feotus in the female occurs when an ovum is fertilized by a spermatozoon; in lay term it is called conception. The fused product of male and female gamete is called zygote. It occurs during reproductive period of female from 15 years to 45 years.
Although pregnancy begins with implantation, the process leading pregnancy occurs earlier as a result of female gamete or oocyte, merging with male gamete or spermatozoon.

Medico Legal Aspects
1.When a woman pleads pregnancy to avoid attendance in the court as a witness – Pregnancy itself is not an excuse, unless in advanced stage of pregnancy to the fact that delivery is imminent.
2.When a female sentenced to death penalty, pleads that she is pregnant to avoid execution. The High court has the to postpone the execution of death until 6 months after delivery or commute it to life imprisonment.
3.When a woman feigns pregnancy after her husband’s death to claim succession to estate.
4.When a woman, who had filed a suit in the court for breach of promise of marriage of seduction claims to be pregnant.
5.When a woman blackmails a man and accuses that she is pregnant by him to compel marriage.
6.In allegations that widow or an unmarried woman or a married woman living separately from her husband, is pregnant.
7.When a woman alleges that she is pregnant in order to secure greater compensation from some person dies through the negligence.
8.In case of divorce, the woman may claim to be pregnant to receive more alimony or maintenance /allowance.

Pre-Interview Written test for the post of Staff Nurse BPS-16 Health Department Government of Sindh.

Answer Key

Question Paper – 2015 (http://nursingipd.com/2022/04/02/1383/

1. A
2. B
3. C
4. A
5. C
6. A
7. C
8. B
9. C
10. B
11. A
12. C
13. B
14. D
15. C
16. D
17. B
18. A
19. B
20. C

21. B
22. C
23. D
24. C
25. D
26. C
27. C
28. C
29. D
30. A
31. B
32. D
33. D
34. D
35. C
36. B
37. D
38. A
39. A
40. C

41. D
42. C
43. C
44. A
45. A
46. D
47. B
48. C
49. B
50. C

51. D
52. B
53. D
54. C
55. D
56. A
57. D
58. B
59. D
60. B
61. A
62. B
63. D
64. B
65. A
66. B
67. D
68. C
69. A
70. B

71. D
72. B
73. A
74. B
75. B
76. B
77. B
78. B
79. A
80. C
81. B
82. C
83. D
84. B
85. C

86. D
87. C
88. B
89. C
90. B
91. B
92. C
93. B
94. B
95. C
96. B
97. B
98. A
99. D
100. C

For question paper, click on this link:

Pre-Interview Written test for the post of Staff Nurse BPS-16 Health Department Government of Sindh.

Essay: Women empowerment

Quaid-e-Azam said in a speech in 1944, “No nation can rise to the height of glory unless your women are side by side with you; we are victims of evil customs. It is a crime against humanity that our women are shut up within the four walls of the houses as prisoners.”

Women empowerment refers broadly to the expansion of freedom of choice and action to shape one’s life. It implies control over resources and decisions. An empowered woman will be one who is self confident, who critically analyses her environment and who exercises control over decisions that affect her life. The idea of empowerment manifests itself at all levels of societal interaction. It is found in giving a voice to the weak and marginalized. It requires having an access to the needed tools and materials for the expansion of capacities. Women empowerment has five components: women sense of self worth; their right to have and determine choices; their right to have access to opportunities and resources; their right to have the power to control their own lives, both within and outside the home; and their ability to influence the direction of social change to create a more just social and economic order nationally and internationally.

National development must be balanced with the equal distribution of resources to both males and females as in Pakistan females are approximately 51 percent of the total population and without the active participation of females Pakistan cannot achieve the required level of growth rate. Since the creation of Pakistan in 1947 it inherited the menace of poverty and the burden of this poverty was put heavily on female population because of the reason that the majority of females are involved in agriculture work, performing tasks to maintain household , carrying water and collecting fuel wood but their work in productive activities is unrecognised and, therefore, the female participation represented in economic activities seems to be low.

o promote the gender equality and women empowerment; to highlight the importance of women representation and participation in decision making; and to motivate the women towards public and private sector employment, GRAP is organising awareness raising programmes like celebration of events, seminars, workshops and trainings at district and at provincial level that are being organised on regular basis through its three main units ie, Gender Mainstreaming Units(GMUs) at provincial level, Career Development Centers at University level and Gender Support Units(GSUs) at district level.

Moreover, for the promotion and protection of women rights, to restore the personal security and dignity of women and to give them protection at workplace, the Pakistan government has taken deliberate and conscious steps like reservation of 10 percent quota for females, on the political side, reservation of thirty three percent seats for women in all local bodies (more than 36000 women councilors), seventeen percent seats have been reserved for women in the constituent assembly, senate, provincial assembly and in national assembly, to tackle the issues of harassment and to eliminate the gender based violence.

No doubt Pakistan government has taken many measures to enhance the participation of women in economic sphere but instead of all this, there is dire need to upgrade the status of women in society and it is only possible through giving them protection legally and mentally. She should be given access and control over resources. An effective mechanism should be institutionalised to enable the women in decision making at all levels. Subject of gender studies should be introduced from secondary level in the course curriculum, provision of women friendly infrastructure and environment at workplace, research and documentation on the achievements of women and launching of awareness raising campaigns among citizens on gender and development.

Essay: Role of Nurse in improving hospitals’ quality and efficiency

The Health Care Industry is one of the most important industries if not the most important one. The Health Care industry consists of everything from the little pharmacy across the street, drugs processing plants all the way to the hospital where we immune our kids. The Health Care industry affects nearly every living person. Most people don’t realize how important this industry is and how it affects their everyday lives, not to mention how complicated it is. That is why it is so critical that products and services of this industry are at their highest quality and are free of harm to ensure that the consumer will not face any damaging consequences. Therefore, as any other industry, quality in the health care system has become the element in the world’s market competition and Total Quality Management (TQM) plays a big role in promising that result.

Nurses are directly involved in almost all aspects of hospital quality, including patient care, bedside and medication management, assistance with surgeries and other major operations, data collection/reporting, and more.

Furthermore, nurses are directly responsible for monitoring and assessing patients, and performing immediate interventions to reduce risk or prevent medical complications. Nurses also oversee other care providers, i.e. CNAs, LPNs, patient care technicians, caregivers, and more. An attending nurse even helps educate patients and family members regarding post hospital care, before discharge.

Demand for Hospital Quality Improvement:

The demand for quality improvement in hospitals is ever increasing due to federal government mandates, as well as local requirements, accreditation or regulatory boards, hospital organizations, medical societies, non-profit organizations (NGOs) and health insurance plans. Core qualities reported may vary in terms of target medical concern or hospital department, but in most cases, employee and patient feedback is included in the measurement.

Magnet Recognition:

Among numerous programs demanding or requesting hospital quality improvement, the most relevant for nurses is the Magnet Recognition. It was developed by the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) – a subsidiary of the American Nurses Association – in order to recognize hospitals which provide nursing excellence. 

The Magnet Recognition program is based on an appraisal consisting of 14 characteristics. Foundationally, Magnet looks for a strong presence of nurses in the organizational committee structure of hospitals – including executive functions – empowering nurses in all levels to have a voice in hospital processes. While Magnet was originally focused on recognizing hospitals with higher nurse retention, there are researchers which have proven that Magnet-awarded medical institutions boast of lower mortality rates and higher hospital quality care in general.

Challenges Involved

Some of the usual hindrances involved revolve around nurses. Problems include inadequate staffing or uneven distribution of schedules, demanding responsibility which covers all aspects of patient care, ineffective nurse training, inefficient administrative tasks, and traditional nursing education, which often clashes with advancing nursing techniques.

Staffing and Patient Care Quality

In relation to staffing and scheduling, research from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) pointed out the direct connection between hospital care quality and nurse staffing. 

Staffing is directly related to hospital budget considerations as well as the demand of the local labor market for nurses. Quality of care, on the other hand, is dependent on various factors, such as a nurse’s experience, skills, and education. Another important aspect is the human factor. Fatigue and stress can lead to a decline in patient care quality due to errors in medication, treatment, usage of medical devices, data reporting, and more.

In conclusion, Healthcare organizations are required to focus on total quality improvement and providing acceptable, quality health services to patients at affordable price within reasonable price, within in a reasonable time. We have learned by past experiences as Nightingale’s efforts to improve the quality of medical care. The Health Care Industry is one of the most important industries if not the most important one.

Essay: Effective ways to change image of nurse

Throughout time the world’s image on Nursing has evolved rapidly. Nurses work in an extremely stressful environment and must carry out their duties in a professional manner to ensure proper procedures are followed throughout their routines. They also have a considerable amount of responsibility that comes with their career. For those reasons nurses must present themselves in a professional and structured manner at all times. The Image of Nursing describes how people in and out of the profession see nurses. Nurses must protect and continuously improve their image by fully applying themselves to their profession every day.

Generally only people who have had extended contact with nurses, in the healthcare setting or as family and friends, really understand what nursing entails. We need to do much more to get the correct image of the nurse out there – that of an educated and highly skilled independent professional practitioner, male or female, who is self-assured and confident.

  1. Have pride in your profession

When asked in a social setting what your job is don’t answer with “Oh, um, I’m just a nurse” as though you are ashamed. Hold your head high and reply with confidence something like: “I’m a nurse working at St. John’s hospital in the pediatric unit”. If relevant, add that you are a specialist, e.g. in critical care. This may be a good opening for further conversation.

Never criticize patients, co-workers, your employer or the profession in front of patients or in social settings. The place to vent about your horrible day is either at home with your family or alone with your nursing colleagues or best friend.

  1. Maintain a professional image

Look and act like a professional person 24/7 – wherever you are you serve as a role model of who and what a nurse is.

Professional appearance starts with good grooming and workwear appropriate for a professional person. Keep to the dress code of the institution where you are working. Cartoon characters on uniforms might have a place – but only on a pediatric ward.

Introduce yourself to patients and explain to them who you are, why you are there and what are going to do. Explaining procedures and medications, and the reasons for them, not only reassures the patient but also shows that you are knowledgeable and confident in what you are doing.

  1. Get the nursing story in the media

A study conducted by Woodhall on nurses in the media during 1997 was published under the title “Health Care’s invisible partner”. It was found that nurses were referred to in fewer than 4% of over 2000 health articles in newspapers from across the United States. The researcher came to the conclusion that this largest group of health care providers was virtually invisible to the public.

The main career motivator for most nurses is service, rather than money or power and prestige. This is why nurses shy away from and are unaware of the need for media to promote the profession. For the public to understand the major and indispensable role of nurses in healthcare, they need to be shown who she is and what she does.

  1. Become a community leader

Given their education, background and exposure to community issues nurses can serve effectively on various platforms and become leaders in their communities. Participation by nurses at this level shows them as concerned and knowledgeable citizens and enhances the public image of nursing. Participating in community activities also contribute to your own professional development.

  1. Speak up for you and your patient’s rights

How many times have we been advocating for safe nurse-to-patient ratios? Numerous studies (here, here, and here) have found out that understaffing causes increased risk not only for patients but also for nurses. These studies support the minimum staffing levels, but hospital administrators are reluctant to adopt them, of course, to save money. Press would usually attribute the overburdened state of hospitals to a national nursing shortage, but most everywhere there has been a surplus of educated nurses for years.

  1. Make a difference

Contribute to the future of your profession – what you as a nurse do or say does make a difference. Be proud to be a nurse, always look and act professionally, help to inform the public about nurses and nursing an example within your community.

Conclusions

Promoting and sustaining positive nursing image is very crucial in nursing profession to keep nurses to be motivated to work and retain in the profession to be more professional and be a role model and mentor nurses everywhere you go to promote nursing image either in personal life or professional workplace. It is also very inspiring to correct public media’s misconception of nursing image by writing to them to keep inform and upgrade them regarding positive image in nursing to recruit more staff to join nursing and retain in nursing and to enhance job satisfaction, job performance. By actively involved in professional organization to talk to policy maker, writer to media or newspaper to keep them well-informed of nurses’ achievement and to get recognition from public.