Sex during periods/Menstruation

Is It Safe to Have Sex During Your Period?

  • Benefits
  • Side Effects
  • Tips,

 Can you have sex during your period?

You will have a menstrual cycle once a month during your reproductive years. There’s no need to avoid sexual activity during your period unless you’re very sensitive. Though period sex might be messy, it is completely safe. Having sex while menstruation can also provide certain benefits, such as relief from menstrual cramps.

 

Benefits

There are a few advantages to having sex during your period:

  1. Pain relief from cramping

Menstrual cramps may be relieved by orgasms. Menstrual cramps are caused by your uterus contracting in order to discharge its lining. When you have an orgasm, the muscles in your uterus contract as well. Then they let go. Period cramps should be relieved by this release.

Sex also causes the production of endorphins, which are hormones that make you feel wonderful. Furthermore, sexual activity diverts your attention away from your period discomfort.

  1. Short duration of periods

Sex may cause your periods to be shorter. Muscle spasms during an orgasm force the uterine contents out more quickly. This might lead to shorter durations.

  1. increased sexual desire

Because of hormonal shifts, your libido alters during your menstrual cycle. While many women indicate that their sex desire increases about two weeks before their period, others report feeling more turned on during their period.

  1. Natural lubricant

During your period, you can store the KY. The blood serves as a natural lubricant.

  1. It could help with your headache.

Approximately half of women with migraine headaches have them during their periods. Although most women with menstrual migraines avoid sex during their attacks, many of those who do report that it improves their headaches partially or entirely.

 What are the possible side effects?

The most obvious disadvantage of having sex during your period is the mess. When you have a high flow, blood might go on you, your partner, and the bedding. Aside from making your bed messy, bleeding might make you feel self-conscious. Anxiety over making a mess might detract from the enjoyment of sex.

Another concern about having sex during your period is the possibility of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) such as HIV or hepatitis. These viruses dwell in blood and can be transmitted by contact with contaminated menstrual blood. Using condoms whenever you have sex reduces your chances of transmitting or contracting a STI.

If you intend to have sex while on your period and are wearing a tampon, you must remove it beforehand. During intercourse, a forgotten tampon can be pushed so far up into your vagina that you’ll need to visit a doctor to have it removed.

 

Can you get pregnant/conceive?

If you aren’t actively attempting to conceive, utilizing protection is a smart idea regardless of where you are in your menstrual cycle. Your chances of becoming pregnant are decreased during your period, but it is still possible.

You are most likely to become pregnant during ovulation, which occurs around 14 days before your period begins. However, each woman’s cycle duration is unique, and your cycle length might alter monthly. If you have a short menstrual cycle, you are more likely to become pregnant during your period.

Consider the fact that sperm may dwell in your body for up to seven days. So, if you have a 22-day cycle and ovulate soon after having your period, you may be releasing an egg while sperm are still in your reproductive tract.

 

Is it necessary to wear/use protection?

Using protection will also protect you against STIs. Because viruses like HIV thrive in menstrual blood, you can not only get a STI during your period, but you can also more readily transmit one to your partner.

Wear a latex condom every time you have sex to lower your chances of becoming pregnant and contracting a STI. If you or your spouse are allergic to latex, there are other options for protection. You can get advice from your pharmacist or doctor.

 

Tips on having sex during your period

Here are a few pointers to make period sex more pleasant and less messy:

Communicate openly and honestly with your spouse. Tell them how you feel about having sex during your period and inquire about their feelings. If either of you is apprehensive, discuss the reasons for your unease.

If you’re wearing a tampon, take it out before you start messing about.

To collect any blood drips, place a dark-colored cloth on the bed. Or, to avoid the mess totally, have sex in the shower or bath.

Keep a damp towel or wet wipes beside the bed for cleanup.

Wear a latex condom with your lover. It will provide protection against pregnancy and STIs.

If your typical sexual position makes you uncomfortable, try something new. Try resting on your side with your spouse behind you, for example.

 Takeaway

Don’t let your period prevent you from having fun. If you do a little planning, sex may be just as delightful on those five or so days as it is the rest of the month. You might be startled to discover that sex is much more stimulating during your period.

Is it Possible to Get Pregnant Without Having Sex? You Might Be Surprised by the Answer

Women are claiming that this has happened to them; are they telling the truth?

Everyone who has taken a basic sex education class is aware that having unprotected sex carries the risk of becoming pregnant. As a result, it’s difficult to believe that a woman can become pregnant without having penetrative sex. It turns out that it isn’t, and some people online claim that it happened to them.

Sammi Isabel’s story was told in a TikTok video, which quickly went viral. Isabel stated in the video that she became crampy at her prom and discovered her period was a week late. Despite the fact that she was a virgin at the time, she took a pregnancy test—and it came back positive. “And that’s how I have a 5-year-old son,” she captioned the photo.

Isabel insisted in a later TikTok that she wasn’t making up her story. “I just want people to know it’s a possibility,” she explained.

Isabel is far from the first woman to claim something similar happened to her. Wathoni Anyassi revealed on her YouTube channel LoloTalks that she became pregnant as a virgin as well. “I thought, ‘Wow, pregnant.'” ‘How did this happen?’ she recalls thinking in her video.

It’s easy to dismiss these stories as hoaxes. Ob-gyns, on the other hand, swear that these so-called virgin pregnancies do exist.

More women than you might think have gotten pregnant without having sex.

According to a data analysis published in the BMJ in 2013, 45 of the 7,870 women who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health said they had a virgin pregnancy that wasn’t related to reproductive assistance, such as IVF or intrauterine insemination (IUI). The researchers discovered that these reports were more common among women who signed chastity pledges or whose parents didn’t talk to them about sex and birth control much, if at all.

A major caveat, according to the researchers: getting pregnant without having sex is usually difficult to prove. “Even with numerous enhancements and safeguards to optimise reporting accuracy,” they wrote, “researchers may still face challenges in the collection and analysis of self-reported data on potentially sensitive topics.”

However, Lauren Streicher, MD, a clinical obstetrics and gynaecology professor at Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine, tells Health that many clinicians have observed this. “Many obstetricians have experiences about delivering someone who claims to be a virgin with an unbroken hymen,” she explains. “There are unquestionably virgin births.”

The use of an intact hymen—a small amount of additional tissue around the vaginal opening—to prove virginity is controversial, because the hymen can rip or stretch over time as a result of wearing tampons, having gynaecological exams, and engaging in strenuous activity. Dr. Streicher believes that if a lady has an intact hymen and claims she’s never had penetrative sex, her virgin pregnancy narrative is more likely.

Other ob-gyns agree that this is a thing. “Indeed, this is feasible,” says Mary Jane Minkin, MD, a clinical professor of obstetrics and gynaecology and reproductive sciences at Yale Medical School.

“The danger of getting pregnant in this method is very low because sperm can only live for a brief time outside of the body,” women’s health expert Jessica Shepherd, M.D., an ob-gyn in Dallas, Texas, tells Health. “However, it is still feasible and has happened in women.”

Okay, but how can you get pregnant if you don’t have sex?

There must be sperm and an egg, among other things, for a pregnancy to develop. Those two are normally associated with penetrative intercourse, but Dr. Shepherd points out that they can also be associated with messing around.

“This can happen when sperm get into the vagina—for example, if the male ejaculates at the vaginal opening, or if a partner’s erect penis comes into contact with the body near the vagina,” she explains. Dr. Minkin believes the initial few drops of seminal fluid (the fluid that carries sperm out of a man’s penis) “have lots of sperm,” adding, “they simply need to make their way up into the vagina and up to the cervix.”

According to Dr. Minkin, virgin pregnancies are more likely to occur in younger people who are more fertile. “Women need to know that this is clearly a genuine issue and that pregnancies may occur without penetration,” Dr. Streicher adds. All you need is sperm at the vaginal opening—they’re terrific swimmers.”

So, what can people do to avoid a virgin pregnancy?

FWIW, this is an uncommon occurrence, so don’t lie awake at night wondering that you’re pregnant if you didn’t go all the way. Having said that, there is enough of a danger of becoming pregnant without having intercourse that you should probably take measures in the future.

If your partner’s penis or semen comes into touch with or goes close to your vagina, even if it doesn’t go inside, “use the same contraception that you would use if you were having penetrative intercourse,” Dr. Streicher says. “It’s really no different.”

Barrier birth-control techniques (such as condoms containing spermicide) can be beneficial, according to Dr. Shepherd. Plan B is also a possibility if you’re not sure how safe you were when you were fooling about, according to her. Dr. Minkin adds that long-acting reversible contraception, such as an IUD or a birth control implant, can assist give protection when you don’t want to worry about birth control.

Again, this isn’t very frequent, and many women have cheated on their boyfriends without becoming pregnant. Even so, it’s crucial to be aware that there is a danger.

Test or Examination for Virginity

Evidence-Based Guiding Note

What exactly is virginity testing?

The inspection of the female genitalia to determine if the examinee has had or has become accustomed to sexual intercourse is known as ‘virginity testing.’ Some tribes conduct ‘virginity testing’ to determine which women or girls are ‘virgins’ (i.e. have not had sexual intercourse). As part of the sexual assault examination of female rape survivors, some medical practitioners perform ‘virginity testing.’

The two most popular ‘virginity testing’ procedures are visual inspection of the hymen for size or rips and two-finger vaginal insertion. The goal of the latter is to assess the size of the introitus or the laxity of the vaginal wall, as well as the existence of the hymen, which is a thin membrane in the vaginal entrance that some cultures believe remains intact until women have sexual intercourse. However, research suggests that this form of testing may not give reliable findings since the existence and characteristics of the hymen vary from woman to woman and the membrane can rupture or stretch during daily activities other than sexual intercourse.

 

What are the consequences of ‘Virginity Testing’?

‘Virginity testing’ causes physical, physiological and social harm.

Physical harm: In the case of survivors of abuse, ‘virginity exams’ may cause physical injury to the women and girls being evaluated, including worsening existing injuries. Harm may also come from family who, as a result of a perceived ‘failed’ test, may harm or murder the lady or girl in the sake of ‘honour.’ As a result of the ‘virginity testing,’ some women or girls have self-harmed or tried suicide.

Psychological harm: Women and girls who have had ‘virginity tests’ have reported tremendous dread and anxiety before the test, as well as shouting, weeping, and fainting during the exam. Women and girls have also experienced long-term repercussions such as self-hatred, loss of self-esteem, depression, a sense of invasion of privacy, and re-victimization (for survivors of sexual assault).

Social harm: ‘Virginity testing’ is frequently connected with damaging traditional and cultural traditions that subject women and girls to stigma, humiliation, and dishonour in front of their families and communities. Women and girls might face ostracism or even death if they have (or are suspected of having) sexual relations outside of the rules enforced by society, such as before marriage. Furthermore, in certain societies, early marriage is utilised as a type of erroneously understood “protective” strategy to prevent the humiliation and penalties of a girl who had sexual relations before to marriage. As a result, some girls may be married off early in order to prevent any form of sexual activity before to marriage.

 

Medical Relevance: is ‘Virginity Testing’ a Determinant for Vaginal Intercourse?

According to a 2014 WHO article, the intrusive and demeaning “virginity test” or “two-finger test,” which is still employed in some countries to “verify” whether a woman or girl is a virgin, has “no scientific basis.” “The WHO guideline endorses the generally established medical position that ‘virginity tests’ are meaningless” and give no proof of whether a woman or a girl has had sexual intercourse or has been raped.

In reality, some women are born without a hymen, and the membrane can burst or stretch as a result of other activities like as athletics and weight lifting, among others.

The vaginal hymen is part of the vulva, or external genitalia, and is placed 1-2 cm within the vaginal entrance. Its structure is similar to that of the vagina in that it resembles a ruffled wreath and is made up of folds of mucous tissue that can be firmly or loosely folded. The form, size, colour, and flexibility of the hymen vary across women and during a woman’s life, depending on age, stage of sexual development, and hormone levels.

Talking About ‘Virginity Testing’ with Women and Girls

In some of these Syrian communities, young girls and women contact medical institutions and request ‘virginity testing.’ Many physicians find it difficult to deny when this occurs; they believe that if the request comes from the lady or girl herself, it is their obligation to do the test. It is critical to note that regardless of who demands the examination, the medical (in) validity of the test, as well as the human rights consequences, remain unchanged. Furthermore, the grounds for such a request are rooted in power disparities between men and women, as well as gendered cultural norms.

The individual requesting the test is most likely unable to fully exercise her right to freedom of choice, and the pressure placed on her to establish her ‘virginity’ is a violation of her rights in and of itself.

It is also vital that women and girls are targeted with awareness-raising messages in order to empower them and prevent them from feeling compelled to engage in this destructive activity.

Doctors, midwives, nurses, and psychosocial workers who hear these requests should perform the following:

  • Welcome the woman pleasantly, make her feel at ease, and ensure her that everything she says them will be kept private.
  • Determine the cause (why the woman thinks she needs such a test). Listening actively and respectfully to the woman or girl may result in the discovery of an abusive or dangerous scenario that must be handled with according to protocol.
  • Share with the lady the reasons why the test is not scientifically trustworthy, why it is a practise that must be ended, and specifics about its harmful practises (i.e. creating shame and fear to enforce control over women and girls).
  • Do not do the test; instead, assist the woman or girl in identifying alternate solutions (such as referral to case workers and devising safety plans) to the position she is in, ensuring her safety and security at all times.

Because virginity is not a medical condition, a medical examination is not necessary nor beneficial, and it may be both uncomfortable and detrimental.

Helping Women and Girls Who Have Been Subjected to ‘Virginity Testing’

Women and girls who are subjected to ‘virginity testing’ will respond differently to the examination, based on a variety of circumstances such as their age, current coping strategies, and/or social standing. Organizations should explore support interventions on a case-by-case basis and in accordance with the interests of the women or girls. Organizations with continuing case management programmes can guide women and girls who have disclosed having had a “virginity test” through several processes. Medical and emotional care, at a minimum, should be offered to these women and girls, either directly or through referrals to service providers delivering GBV-focused services.

Virginity and Pregnancy

Content
1 Virginity
2 Definitions
3 Hymen
4 Medico-Legal Aspect of Virginity
5 Pregnancy
6 Medico-Legal Aspect of Pregnancy

VIRGIN:
A virgin is a woman who has not experienced sexual intercourse.
Virgin term is derived from a latin word Virgo or Maiden, which means sexually inexperienced woman ( virgo intacta)

VIRGINITY
Virginity is the state of being Virgin.
Defloration
Latin Term – de:flore, flower and away: Rupture of hymen by sexual intercourse to the plucking of flower.
Defloration means loss of virginity
Marriage
It is a contract between man and woman which implies physical union by coitus.
Divorce
Divorce means dissolution of previously valid marriage
Chastity
It does not imply virginity
Chastity derived from a Latin word’ castitas meaning cleanliness or purity.
Hymenoplasty
It is an operation for repairing ruptured hymen. It will restore to its intact estate.
Hymenorrhaphy
• ‘Hymen’ is a Greek term meaning membrane and ‘Raphe’ means suturing:
• so, suturing of ruptured hymen is Hymenorrhaphy.
Hymenotomy
It is a surgical procedure to correct imperforate or septate Hymen.

 

CONCEPTS

The question of virginity arises in cases of-

1.Nullity of marriage:
• When either party was under age at the time of marriage
• One party was of unsoundmind or mental defective at the time of marriage
• Either party was already validly married,
• When female was pregnant by another man at the time of marriage or
• where has not been comummuted due to impotence or wilful refusal.

 

2.Divorce
The ground of the divorce are:
• Adultery,
• Incurable mental illness,
• Husband found guilty of rape,sodomy or bestality,
• Incurable leprosy
• Incurable venereal disease,
• deserted petitioners for two year continuously.
• Not heard for years and
• Divorce by mutual consent on the ground of living separately for one year or more

 

HYMEN
The Hymen is a fold of mucous membrane about 1mm thick, derived from the posterior vaginal wall, situated at the vaginal outlet.
Types of Hymen :
1.Annular Hymen: The opening is oval and situated near the centre of the membrane
2.Semilunar or Crescentic Hymen: It is commonest type of hymen in which the opening placed anteriorly.
3.Cribriform Hymen: There are several hymenal opening
4.Septate Hymen: Two lateral opening which is separated either partially or completely by a thin strip of tissue.
5.Vertical Hymen: The opening in the hymen is vertical.
6.Infantile Hymen: A small linear opening in the middle of hymen
7.Imperforate Hymen: No Hymenal opening present.
8.Fimbriated Hymen: This type of hymen is also called Frilly Edged Hymen’.

Causes of Rupture of Hymen
1.Act of coitus: Sexual inter course is the commonest cause of rupture of Hymen.
However in some cases Hymen remains intact inspite of Virgin, repeated sexual intercourse, such condition is called False
2.Accident: A fall on a projecting substance.
3.Foreign Body: Sola pith is introduced into vagina for rendering very young girl fit for sexual intercourse is called Aptae Virus.
4.Masturbation: Specially, if practiced with some large foreign body.
5.Surgical Procedure: Artificial maneuvers and gynecological examinations and introduction of instrument for medical examination.
6.SanitaryTampons: Insertion of sanitary tampon
7.Ulceration: Due to diphtheria and other diseases
8.Scratches: Due to irritation of parts the cause is lack of cleanliness.

Medico Legal Aspects
1.The presence of an intact Hymen is not an absolute sign of virginity. With an intact hymen there are true virgin or false virgin.
The principal signs of virginity are an intact Hymen, a normal condition of the fourchette and posterior commissure and a narrow vagina with rugosity of wall.
2. After repeated sexual intercourse, tears are present at 5’o clock and 7o’ clock position. After the birth of child Hymen is completely lost and small round flashy tags are formed called carunculae hymenales or ‘carunculae myrtiformes’.

 

PREGNANCY
Pregnancy is the carrying of one or more embryo or feotus inside the womb of a female.
The condition of having a developing embryo or feotus in the female occurs when an ovum is fertilized by a spermatozoon; in lay term it is called conception. The fused product of male and female gamete is called zygote. It occurs during reproductive period of female from 15 years to 45 years.
Although pregnancy begins with implantation, the process leading pregnancy occurs earlier as a result of female gamete or oocyte, merging with male gamete or spermatozoon.

Medico Legal Aspects
1.When a woman pleads pregnancy to avoid attendance in the court as a witness – Pregnancy itself is not an excuse, unless in advanced stage of pregnancy to the fact that delivery is imminent.
2.When a female sentenced to death penalty, pleads that she is pregnant to avoid execution. The High court has the to postpone the execution of death until 6 months after delivery or commute it to life imprisonment.
3.When a woman feigns pregnancy after her husband’s death to claim succession to estate.
4.When a woman, who had filed a suit in the court for breach of promise of marriage of seduction claims to be pregnant.
5.When a woman blackmails a man and accuses that she is pregnant by him to compel marriage.
6.In allegations that widow or an unmarried woman or a married woman living separately from her husband, is pregnant.
7.When a woman alleges that she is pregnant in order to secure greater compensation from some person dies through the negligence.
8.In case of divorce, the woman may claim to be pregnant to receive more alimony or maintenance /allowance.

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

A) EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS:

The educational institutions play significant role in the development of a country the moulds the attitude and behaviour of the individual in a certain name in a particular situation.

B) TYPES OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS:

  1. Formal Education.
  2. Informal Education.
  3. General Education.
  4. Technical Education.
  5. Conventional Education.
  6. Person-Centred Education.
  7. Progressive Education.
  8. Conservative Education.
  9. Prejudiced Education.
  10. Liberal Education.
  11. Religious Education.
  12. Secular Education.
  13. Moral Education.
  14. Scientific Education.
  15. Formal Education: In this an individual receives education in class room E.g. Education in School, College etc…
  16. Informal Education: In this an individual receives education from out side the class room. It starts from the time a baby in born and continues as long as he lives.
  17. General Education: In this type a person receives education as a routine. It is divided into following categories.1) Primary School. 2) Middle School. 3) High School. 4) College.
  18. Technical Education: It is given to an individual to train him in specific field.1. School of Nursing.2. Medical College.3. Technical College.
  19. Conventional Education: It is known as traditional education or indoctrination. Indoctrination means forcing a special idea, belief or mode of learning upon individuals and giving them no opportunity to consider any other point of view.It is rigid form of education in which importance is given to indirect way.
  20. Person-Centred Education: In this type the whole person is given importance i.e. the feelings, passion and intellect.
  21. Progressive Education: It is also known as emulative education. It is a competitive type of education in which an individual have freedom to compete. This education shows rapid progress or reform. It is flexible because it welcomes change.
  22. Conservative Education: In this type, values are preserved.
  23. Prejudiced Education: In this, educations are very staunch and are not open-minded to accept new ideas. It may be called an extremist group.
  24. Liberal Education: It is also called democratic education. It is flexible and more open. It is ready to accept new ideas.
  25. Religious Education: It is a belief-oriented education which is compulsory for each and every individual. It stays within the limits of religious beliefs.
  26. Secular Education: It is an education with in sight focusing our reality with no consideration for any religion.
  27. Moral Education: It is also known as ethical education it safeguards the principles of humanity and produces ideal human being.
  28. Scientific Education: It is based on empiricism. In this type, an individual produces a theory and also prove into application.

C) FUNCTIONS OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS:

Two types of functions:

  1. Manifest Function.
  2. Latent Function.
  3. MANIFEST FUNCTION:

Some of the important Manifest Functions are as follow:

  1. To provide education
  2. To provide religious instruction and guidance.
  3. To teach discipline.
  4. To regulate morals.
  5. To provide recreation.
  6. To regulate social welfare activities.
  7. LATENT FUNCTION:

They help in bringing social control and orderly life in a society.

D) PROBLEMS OF EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN:

In Pakistan, the basic problem regarding education is that, people don’t have the sense to get good education.
In Pakistan, the most of population about 80% of people live in villages and majority are uneducated. This backwardness creates problems and people find difficult to solve them.
The following are the major problems of educational system:

  1. Inadequate educational system.
  2. Children’s are absent with lots of problems.
  3. Ununiform system of education.
  4. Poor standard of education.
  5. Ineffective education system.
  6. Waste of educational resources.

ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS

A) ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS:

It is a set of norms relating to production & distinction of goods and services. The economy means the dominant form of economic activity present in a society e.g.

  1. Collecting and hunting economy.
  2. Nomadic –post oral economy.
  3. Settled agricultural economy.
  4. Modern urban industrial economy.

a) CAPITALISM: It is an economic system in which the property of economic institution is owned and controlled by individuals.

b) SOCIALISM: It is an economic system in which the property of economics institutions is owned and controlled by the state.

B) STRUCTURE OF ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS:

  1. ECONOMIC SYSTEM: An economic system of every society based on ideology by which control and are of capital goods and services is achieved.
  2. DIVISION OF LABOR: Division of labour has made the economic activities of the individual most efficient, organized and effective.
  3. COMPETITION: The economic structure based on competition provides formal and informal norms for production and distribution of goods and services.
  4. ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION: In a society, there are different economic organizations which give different roles and status two its members e.g. trusts partnership etc…
  5. ECHNOLOGY: Technology in every field of economy is introduced all over the world.

C) FUNCTIONS OF ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS:

  1. To regulate and control the capital goods and services in a society.
  2. To satisfy human needs.
  3. They play important role in socialization.
  4. Its play role in social satisfaction.
  5. It provides priority to the individual belonging to a higher economic status.
  6. To provide specialization in process of production and distribution.
  7. To provide power and authority to their owners.
  8. They higher economic status is closely associated with greater political hold in society.

D) ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS IN AGRICULTURE:

Some Important Economic Institutions in Agriculture are as follows:

  1. Agricultural farming.
  2. Chemical fertilizer.
  3. Irrigation system.
  4. Harvesting of crops by labour.
  5. Land tenure system.
  6. Agricultural department.
  7. Agricultural sale depots, flour mills.

E) ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS IN INDUSTRY & TECHNOLOGY:

Some Important Economic Institutions in Industry & Technology are as follows:

  1. Textile industries.
  2. Pharmaceutical industries.
  3. Shoes industries.
  4. Electronic industries.
  5. Mechanical industries.
  6. Transport vehicles industries.
  7. Big shops markets etc…
  8. Banks.

 

ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS

A) ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS:

It is a set of norms relating to production & distinction of goods and services. The economy means the dominant form of economic activity present in a society e.g.

  1. Collecting and hunting economy.
  2. Nomadic –post oral economy.
  3. Settled agricultural economy.
  4. Modern urban industrial economy.

a) CAPITALISM: It is an economic system in which the property of economic institution is owned and controlled by individuals.

b) SOCIALISM: It is an economic system in which the property of economics institutions is owned and controlled by the state.

B) STRUCTURE OF ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS:

  1. ECONOMIC SYSTEM: An economic system of every society based on ideology by which control and are of capital goods and services is achieved.
  2. DIVISION OF LABOR: Division of labour has made the economic activities of the individual most efficient, organized and effective.
  3. COMPETITION: The economic structure based on competition provides formal and informal norms for production and distribution of goods and services.
  4. ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION: In a society, there are different economic organizations which give different roles and status two its members e.g. trusts partnership etc…
  5. ECHNOLOGY: Technology in every field of economy is introduced all over the world.

C) FUNCTIONS OF ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS:

  1. To regulate and control the capital goods and services in a society.
  2. To satisfy human needs.
  3. They play important role in socialization.
  4. Its play role in social satisfaction.
  5. It provides priority to the individual belonging to a higher economic status.
  6. To provide specialization in process of production and distribution.
  7. To provide power and authority to their owners.
  8. They higher economic status is closely associated with greater political hold in society.

D) ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS IN AGRICULTURE:

Some Important Economic Institutions in Agriculture are as follows:

  1. Agricultural farming.
  2. Chemical fertilizer.
  3. Irrigation system.
  4. Harvesting of crops by labour.
  5. Land tenure system.
  6. Agricultural department.
  7. Agricultural sale depots, flour mills.

E) ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS IN INDUSTRY & TECHNOLOGY:

Some Important Economic Institutions in Industry & Technology are as follows:

  1. Textile industries.
  2. Pharmaceutical industries.
  3. Shoes industries.
  4. Electronic industries.
  5. Mechanical industries.
  6. Transport vehicles industries.
  7. Big shops markets etc…
  8. Banks.

 

DIVORCE

A) DIVORCE:

  1. Divorce is a legal dissolution totally or partially of a marriage by a court or any other competent authority.
  2. Separations of husband and wife are called divorce.

B) CAUSES OF DIVORCE:
The following are the causes of divorce:

  1. TRADITIONAL FACTORS ON OUR SOCIETY:
  2. The Impact of Collective Unconscious: The past history of an individual can lead to the divorce.
  3. Male DominationMale are dominate in our society and this negative attitude has broadened gulf between man and woman.
  4. Control of Marriage Contract: Now in our society a woman can also have right to get divorce on spatial grounds.
  5. Abrupt Changes in Old Traditions: Any Abrupt changes in tradition can lead to the shaking of calm way of life.
  6. INTER-FAMILY FACTORS:
  7. Marriage without Willingness of the Partners: Any marriage without willingness of either partner can lead to misunderstanding between husband and wife and end up in divorce.
  8. Reciprocal Marriage: Marriage arranged on reciprocal women is above the factor of divorce in our society.
  9. Family Feuds: Family feuds can make dissatisfaction among the two leading to divorce.
  10. Interference by In-Laws: Too much interference of in-laws leads to frustration among husband and wife.
  11. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS:
  12. Economic Insufficiency: Unsound economic condition of the family can lead to separation or divorce.
  13. Job Insecurity: Unemployment or irregular employment may result in financial problem and can be a cause of divorce.
  14. Poor Housing Condition: Failure of the husband to provide responsible home can also lead to divorce.
  15. Lake of Recreation Facilities: Lake of recreation facilities can also lead to divorce.
  16. Changed Economic Role of Woman: Now a day’s women are doing profitable jobs and they are no longer dependent on males. This factor can also be a cause of divorce.
  17. PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS:
  18. Selfish Partner: If any of the partner is self-centered, and do not think of other may lead to divorce doubts and fears ultimately divorce.
  19. Short-Tempered & Emotionally Disturbed Partner: May result in frequent quarrels which may result to divorce.
  20. Narrow-Minded Partner: Any of the partners who are narrow-minded are suspicious which result in breaking of trust and love and result in divorce.
  21. Insincere Partner: Any type of Insincerity and doubt between the two can dissolve their marriage.
  22. Habitual Addiction: Any type of drug addiction can result in divorce.
  23. PERSONALITY DIFFERENCE:
  24. Difference in Education: Any lag in education of either partner may result in divorce.
  25. Emotional in Incompatibility: Temperamental differences or emotional incompatibility may result in divorce.
  26. Difference in Socio-Economic Status: The greater is the difference of status between the families of husband and wife is also the cause of divorce.
  27. Difference in Religious Belief: Any religious deviancies from either side may be result of divorce.

C) EFECTS OF DIVORCE:

  1. Divorced parents ignore their children.
  2. Divorced parent’s children became selfish and develop psychological problems.
  3. The children of divorced parents may develop sense of insecurity and negative thinking leading to disruptive behaviour.
  4. Children develop inferiority complex.
  5. Children may become destructive in nature.

 

CULTURE

A) CULTURE:

A culture is a sum of total learned behaviour, traits, values, belief, language, laws and technology, characteristics of the member of a particular society.Culture is the cultivated behaviour i.e. the totality of mans learned experience, socially transmitted to one generation to another.Culture is a behaviour acquired through social learning.

B) ELEMENTS OF CULTURE:

The followings are the elements of culture:

  1. Cultural trait.
  2. Cultural complex.
  3. Cultural pattern.
  4. Cultural theme.
  5. Cultural configuration.
  6. Cultural ethos.

1) CULTURAL TRAIT:

It is the simplest unit of the culture and it may be material or non material. Some examples of material culture traits are:

  1. A Nail.
  2. A Handkerchief.
  3. A Safety pin.

Some examples of non-material culture traits are:

  1. Making bed.
  2. Eating with right hand.
  3. Milking a cow.
  4. Driving to the left.
  5. Knowledge of an important drug.

2) CULTURAL COMPLEX:

When two or more cultural traits are organized together is called cultural complex E.g.

  1. Television.
  2. A watch.
  3. A political party as a Muslim league.

3) CULTURAL PATTERN:

When two or more cultural complexes are combined, they form a cultural pattern .E.g. some kind of behaviour is accepted from a person of particular age, category, sex etc…

4) CULTURAL THEME:

The combinations of two or more cultural pattern result in a cultural theme E.g. all human being are equal.

5) CULTURAL CONFIGURATION:

When two or more cultural themes are integrated, the product is known as cultural configuration E.g. Marriage system.

6) CULTURAL ETHOS:

Cultural ethos is the central point of culture. E.g. Pakistan culture is religious.

C) TYPE OF CULTURE:

  1. Material.
  2. Non-material.
  3. Ideal.
  4. Real.
  5. Simple.
  6. Complex.
  7. Organic.
  8. Inorganic.
  9. Super organic.
  10. Sub-culture.
  11. Organization.

1) MATERIAL:

It is the type of culture related to physical objects E.g. Tools, machinery, books etc.

2) NON-MATERIAL:

It is type of culture related to those things which are can not observe E.g. tradition, customs, writing, language etc.

3) IDEAL:

It is presented as a pattern to the people and it is seen or written in books and speeches.

4) REAL:

It is presented by the people in their social life. E.g. cheating and stealing are commonly seen in our society.

5) SIMPLE:

It is based on non industrial social life. E.g., culture in our rural areas.

6) COMPLEX:

In this type education, technology, and industry are in their progressive stage E.g. Western culture.

7) ORGANIC:

It includes the study of biological science E.g. Zoology, Botany.

8 ) INORGANIC:

It includes the study of physical science E.g. Physics, Chemistry etc.

9) SUPER ORGANIC:

It includes the study of social sciences E.g. Sociology.

10) SUB-CULTURAL:

It is a culture of a group of people in society and such people have one or more cultural traits common in their pattern of life. E.g. Sindhi. Punjabi, Blochi, are sub-culture in Pakistan.

11) ORGANIZATION:

It is a common conception shared by the member of an organization.Characteristics in the Organization:

  1. Individual.
  2. Autonomy.
  3. Structure.
  4. Reward.
  5. Consideration.
  6. Conflict.

 

COMMUNITY

A) Definitions:

  1. It may be defined as a larger group of individual living together from a long time in a locality having common interest goals and way of life.
  2. It is an aggregate of mutually related individual in a given location.
  3. There are two conditions for a group to be a community.
  4. The group of members lives together territory.
  5. They fulfill the needs of there life.

B) Examples of community:

  1. Village.
  2. Chak
  3. Mohallah.
  4. Basti.
  5. Tribe.  

c) Difference Between Community And Society 

SR. NO# COMMUNITY SOCIETY
Smaller group of people. Large group of people
People have close interaction. People have no close interaction
People have sentiments with one another and towards locality. People have no sentiments with one another and towards locality.
There is sense of belonging to one another. There is no feeling of belonging.
Social life people are influenced. By local culture. Social lives of people are influenced by general culture
The number of institution are limited The numbers of institution are unlimited.
Co-operations with one another is more effective. Co-operations with one another are less effective.


There are two type of community:

  1. Rural.
  2. Urban.

d) DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RURAL & URBAN COMMUNITY

SR. NO# RURAL URBAN
1 Number of professions is limited. Number of professions is un-limited.
2 Sparsely populated. Thickly populated.
3 Informal relations. Formal relations.
4 Rate of social mobility is lower. Rate of social mobility is high.
5 Social life is simple. Social life is complex.
6 Economy depends upon agriculture. Economy depends upon different profession and business activities.
7 Means are communications are very slow. Means are communications are very fast.
8 No modern facilities. Modern facilities are present.
9 There is endogamy. Exogamy is present.
10 Culture life is influenced. Culture life is less influenced.
11 Peoples are superstitious. Peoples are less superstitious.