Q1) Explain Strategies for managing patient with urinary stress incontinence
Ans :- The nurse instructs the patient to:
1)Avoid bladder irritants, such as caffeine, alcohol, and aspartame (NutraSweet).
2)Avoid taking diuretic agents after 4 pm.
3)increased awareness of the amount and timing of all fluid intake.
4)Perform all pelvic floor muscle exercises as prescribed, every day.
5)Stop smoking (smokers usually cough frequently, which increases incontinence).
6)Take steps to avoid constipation: Drink adequate fluids, eat a well-balanced diet high in fiber, exercise regularly, and take stool softeners if recommended.
7)Void regularly, 5–8 times a day (about every 2–3 hours):
- First thing in the morning
- Before each meal
- Before retiring to bed
- Once during the night if necessary
Q2) a) difference between AIDS and HIV
- b) explain the prevention of HIV
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
HIV is the acronym for human deficiency virus
Virus that invades the immunity system
Patient may suffer minor difficulties; symptoms will be similar to flu
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)
AIDS is the acronym for acquired immune deficiency syndrome
Large stage of spectrum of conditions, initially caused by the infection of (HIV)
Patient will experience severe sign and symptoms, disrupting the quality of life
Prevention of HIV
Individuals can reduce the risk of HIV infection by limiting exposure to risk factors.
1)Male and female condom use before sex
2)Testing and counselling for HIV and STIs
3)Testing and counselling, linkages to tuberculosis (TB) care
4)Avoid sharing contaminated needles, syringes and other injecting equipment and drug solutions when injecting drugs
5)Elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV
Q3) enlist types of hypersensitivity and explain management of any one of them And :- Definition
Hypersensitivity is an excessive or aberrant immune response to any type of stimulus
Types of hypersensitivity
1)Anaphylactic (Type I) Hypersensitivity
2)Cytotoxic (Type II) Hypersensitivity
3)Immune Complex (Type III) Hypersensitivity
4)Delayed-Type (Type IV) Hypersensitivity
Anaphylactic (Type I) Hypersensitivity Management
1)Antihistamines actto block the effects of histamine, which reduces vascular permeability and bronchoconstriction.
2)Corticosteroids which can be used to reduce the inflammatory response, as well as epinephrine, which is sometimes given during severe reactions via intramuscular injections through an EpiPen or intravenousinjection.
3)Epinephrinecan help constrict blood vessels and prevent anaphylactic shock.
Q4) enlist complication of chemotherapy
Ans :- Complication of chemotherapy
- Hair loss.
- Easy bruising and bleeding.
- Anemia (low red blood cell counts)
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Appetite changes.
Q5) explain immediate post operative care of patient after appendectomy Ans :-
Post Operative care
1)Monitor vital sign.
2)Assess level of consciousness.
3)Assess bleeding at wound site.
4)Give clear fluid for first POD.
5)Monitor for infection and any complication at the wound incision.
6)Administer IV prophylaxis antibiotics as ordered.
7)Maintain aseptic technique during dressing.
8)Encourage patient to do ROM exercise.
Q6) English types of abortion and explain management of any one Ans :- Definition
Interruption of pregnancy or expulsion of the product of conception before the fetus is viable is called abortion. The fetus is generally considered to be viable any time after the fifth to sixth month of gestation.
Types of abortion
The term threatened abortion is used when a pregnancy is complicated by vaginal bleeding before the 20th week. Pain may not be a prominent feature of threatened abortion, although a lower abdominal dull ache sometimes accompanies the bleeding. Vaginal examination at this stage usually reveals a closed cervix. 25% to 50% of threatened abortion eventually result in loss of the pregnancy.
The patient is kept at rest in bed until 2 days after blood loss has ceased. Intercourse is forbidden. As soon as the initial bleeding has stopped an ultrasound scan is performed. This will reveal whether or not the pregnancy is intact. The prognosis is good when all abnormal signs and symptoms disappear and when the resumption of the progress of pregnancy is apparent.
In case of inevitable abortion, a clinical pregnancy is complicated by both vaginal bleeding and cramp-like lower abdominal pain . The cervix is frequently partially dilated, attesting to the inevitability of the process.
The uterus usually expels its contents unaided , and examination must be made with strict aseptic technique. If the abortion is not quickly completed, or if hemorrhage becomes severe, the contents of the uterus are removed with a suction curettege.
In addition to vaginal bleeding, cramp-like pain, and cervical dilatation , an incomplete abortion involves the passage of products of conception , often described by the women as looking like pieces of skin or liver.
Patients require admission to the hospital. Treatment is aimed at preventing infection, controlling bleeding and obtaining an empty and involuting uterus. The chief risks associated with retained products are hemorrhage and sepsis.
4)Missed Abortion: –
The term missed abortion is used when the fetus has died but is retained in the uterus, usually for some weeks. After 16 weeks’ gestation, dilatation and curettage may become a problem. Fibrinogen levels should be checked weekly until the fetus and placenta are expelled.
Once the diagnosis has been made the uterus should be emptied. Early in gestation evacuation of the uterus is usually accomplished by suction curettage. The prognosis for the mother is good. Serious complications are uncommon.
5) Recurrent Abortion: –
Recurrent abortion refers to any case in which there have been three consecutive spontaneous abortions. Possible causes are known to be genetic error, anatomic abnormalities of the genital tract, hormonal abnormalities, infection, immunologic factors, or systemic disease.
Paternal and maternal chromosomes should be evaluated. The mother should be ruled out the presence of systemic disorders such as DM, SLE, and thyroid disease. It should rule out the presence of Mycoplasma, Listeria, Toxoplasma etc. infectious disease. Pelvic examination
Q7) English types of abortion and explain management of them
Types of abortion