Fundamental of Nursing MCQs/BCQs

Fundamental of Nursing-I|1stYear|2nd Semester| BSN(Generic)

1. Which of the following is not true about rapid eye movement sleep?
A) metabolic rate increases
B) dreams occur
C) slow wave sleep
D) pulse blood pressure and breathing increases
E) fast waves sleep

2. The client who doesn’t have fever is called:
A) Febrile
B) Hyperpyrexia
C) Afebrile
D) Pyrexia
E) Hypothermia

3. Which of the following is an example of objective data?
A) Severe headache
B) feeling of very severe pain in abdomen
C) feeling worry
D) discoloration of skin
E) complain of loose motion

4. Factors that affect sexual functioning includes
A) Family
B) Personal expectations
C) Religion
D) all of these
E) Culture

5. Concern for the Welfare and wellbeing for others is:
A) Altruism
B) Autonomy
C) Integrity
D) Social Justice
E) human dignity

6. Complicated grieving may not characterize by:
A) suicidal thoughts
B) severe physiologic symptoms
C) extended time of denial
D) sleep disturbance
E) Depression

7. Which of the following statement is true regarding non rapid eye movement (NREM)
A) also called paradoxical sleep
B) sleepoccursevery20minutesandlastfor5to30minutes
C) Brain is highly active
D) usually dream takes place in this sleep
E) sleepers heart rate and respiratory rate drops

8. Which of the following is not a component of nursing process:
A) Intervention
B) Scientific Rationale
C) Assessment & Nursing Diagnosis
D) Expected Outcome
E) Evaluation

9. Loss of voluntary ability to control fecal and gaseous discharge through anal sphincters:
A) Bowel incontinence
B) Constipation
C) Diarrhea
D) Flatulence
E) Urinary incontinence

10. Which of the following is not correct for chronic pain:
A) parasympathetic nervous system responses
B) client appears depressed and withdrawn
C) it lasted six months or longer
D) sympathetic nervous system responses
E) vital signs normal

11. After al medication have been given through nasogastric tube the nurse should:
A) Flush the tube with 30cc water
B) No Need to Flush
C) Flush the tube with 100cc water
D) Flush the tube with 50 water IN
E) Wash out tube thoroughly

12. The Most commonly used methods for stress management includes the following except
A) age
B) Minimize anxiety
C) Exercise
D) Nutrition
E) Mediating anger

13. Inability to obtain and adequate amount or quality of sleep is:
A) Hypersomnia
B) Narcolepsy
C) sleep apnea
D) insomnia
E) parainsomnia

14. Characteristics of normal color of urine is?
A) Dark amber
B) Straw, amber transparent
C) Cloudy
D) Red or dark brown
E) Dark orange

15. Painful or difficult urination is called?
A) hematuria
B) Oliguria
C) polyuria
D) residual urine
E) dysuria

16. Which of the following is a micronutrient?
A) Proteins
B) carbohydrates
C) Water
D) Fat
E) Minerals

17. The major source of body energy is:
A) Minerals
B) Vitamins
C) Carbohydrates
D) Lipids
E) Proteins

18. Data on health status of the client can be obtained by:
A) Lab. reports
B) Diagnostic test results
C) Nursing history
D) Physical assessment
E) All of these

19. Amount of urine output less than 400 ml in 24 hours is called:
A) Anuria

B) Oliguria
C) Polyuria
D) Hematuria
E) Dysuria

20. Which of The nursing intervention is not included to promote a positive concept in client:
A) establish therapeutic relationship with the client
B) avoid eye contact with patient
C) helping our clients to identify areas of strength
D) assist the client to evaluate himself
E) assist the client to make behavioral change

21. Which of The following is not a physiological manifestation of stress?
A) Depression
B) increase cardiac output
C) Hyperglycemia
D) Constipation
E) dry mouth

22. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of human need which of the following human need should met first:
A) Self-actualization
B) Safety and security
C) Self Esteem
D) Love and belonging
E) Physiologic needs

23. When Giving ophthalmic medication in the form of gtts it should be installed
A) Conjunctiva
B) Pupil
C) Sclera
D) Outer canthus
E) Inner canthus

24. Leakage of urine despite of voluntary control of urination is called:
A) Incontinence
B) Urgency
C) Dribbling
D) residual urine
E) hesitancy

25. Average daily urine output by the age of 14years through adulthood is?
A) 1500ml

B) 600-700ml
C) 800-1400ml
D) 1500ml or less
E) 700-1000ml

26. Which of The following statement regarding subcutaneous injection is not true?
A) It is injected just below the skin subcutaneous layer
B) Given at 25-degree angle
C) Only 0.5-1 ml is given
D) Insulin is also given subcutaneously
E) Given at 45-degree angle

27. Non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep occurs about:
A) 50 to 60%
B) 70 to 80%
C) 40 to 50%
D) 30 to 40%
E) 20 to 30%

28. Physical Change of pain includes the following Except:
A) Elevated respiratory rate
B) Elevated dilated pupils, cyanosed and perspiration
C) Elevated blood pressure
D) Elevated pulse rate
E) Stress and restless

29. Process of designing nursing action required to prevent, reduce or eliminate patients’ problem is:
A) Planning
B) Assessment
C) nursing diagnosis
D) Evaluation
E) Implementation

30. The Type of functional Health Pattern which focus on the person’ perceived level of health and wellbeing and on practices for maintaining health is:
A) Self-perception/Self-concept pattern
B) Role and relationship pattern
C) Health perception/health management pattern
D) Value belief pattern
E) Cognitive/perceptual pattern

31. Which of The following statement regarding intradermal injection is not true?
A) Check for bleb or wheal
B) Use 26-27-gauge needle
C) Given at 5-15-degree angle
D) Given for allergy test
E) Inject into deep muscles

32. The first step of nursing process is?
A) Planning
B) Evaluation
C) Diagnosis
D) Assessment
E) Implementation

33. Which of The Following is a dependent nursing action?
A) Giving mouth care
B) Intake and output monitoring
C) Giving bed bath
D) Changing clients position 2hourly
E) Giving medications according to physician’s order

34. Draw The person that attention away from the pain through listening music:
A) Relaxation
B) guided imagery
C) imagery meditation
D) Distraction

35. The ability to listen actively can:
A) improve cooperation
B) improve interpersonal relationship
C) block understanding
D) minimize is communicate
E) reduce conflicts

36. One of The most important factor affecting person sleep and rest periods
A) lifestyle and habits
B) Environment
C) Illness
D) Fatigue
E) Age

37. Which of the following is not a disadvantage of oral route of medication?
A) Not suitable for unconscious patient
B) May cause irritation to gastric mucosa
C) Sometime may have adverse reaction
D) Portable, no pain, easy to take
E) Foodland Gastrointestinal motility can affect drug absorption

38. Intramuscular injection should be given at the angle of _______ degree.
A) 45
B) 75
C) 25
D) 35
E) 90

39. When Assessing a Person with altered concept the nurse should not:
A) minimize interruption
B) ask close ended questions
C) create a quiet environment
D) maintain appropriate eye contact
E) sit at eyelevel with the client


Answer key

1. E
2. C
3. D
4. D
5. A
6. E
7. A
8. D
9. A
10. D
11. A
12. A
13. D
14. B
15. E
16. E
17. C
18. E
19. B
20. B
21. C
22. E
23. A
24. A
25. A
26. B
27. B
28. B
29. A
30. C
31. E
32. D
33. E
34. A
35. E
36. A
37. D
38. E
39. B

Pakistan studies MCQs/BCQsdee

B. Sc Nursing, Post RN BSN


1. During khilafat movement an excited mob set fire to a police station at chauri chaura village where about 22 policemen burnt alive in:

a. February 1922

b. February 1923

c. February 1920

d. February 1921

e. February 1924

2. Who presented the resolution for the formation of All India Muslim League:

a. Nawab Salimullah Khan

b. M. Ali Johar

c. Waqar-ul-Mulk

d. Mohsin-ul-Mulk

e. Sir Agha Khan

3. Which of the following was commonly known as the ’Father of idea of Pakistan’?

a. Sir Muhammad Shafi

b. Choudhary Rehmat Ali

c. M A Jinnah

d. Allama Iqbal

4. When India cut off Pakistan’s water supply without notice?

a. June 1948

b. April 1949

c. May 1948

d. May 1949

e. April 1948

5. Mahmood Ghaznavi who ruled Ghani from 997-1030 A.D. raided India for:

a. 17 times

b. 15 times

c. 16 times

d. 19 times

e. 18 times

6. Historical wars of Paniput are very famous ; this battle field is located in Indian Punjab. How many major wars were fought in this field?

a. Five

b. Six

c. Four

d. Three

e. Two

7. The 3rd June plan was announced on 3rd June by:

a. Lord Mounbatten

b. Jawahar Lal Nehru

c. Loord Wavell

d. Moti Lal Nehru

e. M.A. Jinnah

8. Quaid-e-Azam inaugurated the State Bank of Pakistan on:

a. 14th August, 1948

b. 1st July, 1949

c. 14th July, 1948

d. 1st July, 1948

e. 1st June, 1948

9. Who was the chairman of two boundary commissions between India and Pakistan?

a. Sir Cyril Radcliff

b. Tej sinjh

c. Muhammad Muneer

d. Din Muhammad

e. Mehar Chand

10. Name the Viceroy of India who made an offer in August 1940, on the behalf of British Government to Indian people:

a. Lord Wavel

b. Lord Mount Batten

c. Lord Irwin

d. Lord Linlithgow

e. Lord Hardinge


11. Who was appointed as the caretaker prime minister of Pakistan after the first dismissal of Benazeer Bhutto:

a. Aftab Ahmed Sherpao

b. Muhammad Khan Junejo

c. Moen Qureshi

d. Meraj Khalid

e. Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi

12. The Muslims of Sub-continent launched the Khilafat movement in the year of:

a. 1918

b. 1919

c. 1916

d. 1917

e. 1920

13. Which of the following was the first Muslim of India who placed Two Nation Theory?

a. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

b. Sir Agha Khan

c. M. Ali Jinnah

d. M. Ali Johar

e. Sir Muhammad Shafi

14. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah joined All India Muslim League in the year of:

a. 1913

b. 1915

c. 1914

d. 1912

e. 1916

15. All India Muslim League was established in:

a. September 1905

b. December 1906

c. September 1906

d. December 1907

e. December 1905

16. The Mughal emperor who promulgated a new faith entitled Din-e-Elahi in 1581 A.D. was:

a. Akber

b. Jahangir

c. Humayun

d. Baber

e. Aurangzeb

17. Who was the first prime minister of Pakistan?

a. Kwaja Nazim-ud-din

b. M. Ali Jinnah

c. Liaquat Ali Khan

d. Muhammad Ali Bogra

e. Nur-ul-Amin

18. The Muslim Deputation met the Viceroy Minto in 1906 at:

a. Bombay

b. Delhi

c. Simla

d. Calcutta

e. Lahore

19. Who was the founder of Mughal dynasty?

a. Sher Shah

b. Humayun

c. Akber

d. Jahangir

e. Zaheer-ud-din Baber

20. In 712 A.D a Muslim expedition to conquer Sindh was sent by Hajjaj Bin Yousuf who was:

a. Governer of Iraq

b. Governer of Makran

c. Emperor of Egypt

d. King of Persia

e. Governer of Syria


21. The Simla Deputation led by Agha Khan was consisted of:

a. 25 members

b. 35 members

c. 30 members

d. 32 members

e. 40 members

22. When 3rd Martial law was imposed?

a. 5th July, 1980

b. 5th July, 1978

c. 5th July, 1976

d. 5th July, 1979

e. 5th July, 1977

23. Who coined the name Pakistan?

a. Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar

b. Choudhary Khaliq-uz-zama

c. M,A. Jinnah

d. Choudhary Rehmat Ali

e. Allama Iqbal

24. Select correct chronological order:

a. Akber, Shah Jahan, Humayun, Jahangir

b. Shah Jahan, Jahangir, Akber, Humayun

c. Akber, Humayun, Jahangir, Shah Jahan

d. Jahangir, Shah Jahan, Humayun, Akber

e. Humayun, Akber, Jahangir, Shah Jahan

25. On 23rd March, 1940, the famous resolution which came to be known as Pakistan Resolution was moved by:

a. Choudhary Khaliq-uz-zama

b. Moulvi Fazal-ul-Haq

c. Sardar Auranzeb

d. Moulana Zafar Ali Khan

e. M.Ali Johar

26. Sindh Provincial Muslim League Conference was held at Karachi and passed a resolution adopting Two-Nation Theory on:

a. 10th October, 1938

b. 10th October, 1941

c. 10th October, 1937

d. 10th October, 1939

e. 10th October, 1940

27. The British Government appointed Simon Commission for the recommendation for the new constitution in the year of:

a. 1928

b. 1926

c. 1927

d. 1930

e. 1929

28. The largest political forum of the Islamic countries in the world is:

a. NAM

b. Gulf Countries

c. OIC

d. ECO

e. Arab League

29. With the resignation of Congress Ministries, the Quaid-e-Azam appealed to the people to observe Day of Deliverance on:

a. 22 December, 1938

b. 22 January, 1940

c. 22 January, 1939

d. 22 December, 1939

e. 22 December, 1940

30. Under the Vidya Mandir scheme, the students were asked to pay respect and homage to Gandhi’s picture every day in their assemblies in the schools. The author of this scheme was.

a. Gandhi

b. Imam Ali

c. Zakir Hussain

d. Nehru

e. Dr. Abdul Kalam


31. Name the historians who visited India in 1001 A.D. gave earliest account of distinction between the Hindus and Muslims:

a. Mahmood Ghaznavi

b. Al-Beruni

c. Subuktigin

d. Shahabuddin

e. Alptigin

32. The Indian National Congress passed the ‘Quit India Resolution’ in Bombay on:

a. 30th August, 1942

b. 31st August, 1942

c. 28th August, 1942

d. 18th August, 1942

e. 8th August, 1942

33. Where Quaid-e-Azam taken to in the last months of his life:

a. Ziarat

b. Muree

c. Rawalpindi

d. Quetta

e. Lahore

34. India exploded five nuclear tests on 11th and 13th May 1998. Pakistan replied with atomic explosions on:

a. 27th May, 1998

b. 28th May, 1998

c. 26th May, 1998

d. 25th May, 1998

e. 24th May, 1998

35. The Quran and Sunnah declared as the supreme law of Pakistan in________ of constitution of 1973.

a. 9th amendment

b. 10th amendment

c. 7th amendment

d. 8th amendment

e. 11th amendment

36. Kashmir is located in the ________ of Pakistan.

a. East

b. North East

c. North

d. West

e. South

37. When East Pakistan separated from Pakistan?

a. 8th December, 1971

b. 18th December, 1971

c. 10th December, 1971

d. 16th December, 1971

e. 20th December, 1971

38. The famous Congress-League Scheme was signed in Lucknow in the year of:

a. 1916

b. 1912

c. 1914

d. 1919

e. 1918

39. Which significant step of Bhutto Government in 1974 was a great satisfaction for religious parties?

a. Qadianis were declared as non-Muslims

b. Friday was declared weekly holiday

c. Pakistan was declared Islamic state

d. Separate Electorate were announced


Answer Key:

1. A
2. A
3. B
4. E
5. A
6. D
7. A
8. D
9. A
10. D
11. E
12. B
13. A
14. A
15. B
16. A
17. C
18. C
19. E
20. A
21. B
22. E
23. D
24. E
25. B
26. A
27. C
28. C
29. D
30. C
31. B
32. E
33. A
34. B
35. A
36. C
37. D
38. A
39. A

Sensory and Motor Neurons

Difference between Sensory and Motor Neurons

Sensory Neuron Motor Neuron
Neurons that carry sensory impulse from sensory organs to the central nervous system are known as sensory neurons A neuron that carries motor impulses from the central nervous system to specific effectors is known as motor neurons.
They are located in the dorsal root ganglion of the spinal nerve They are located in the ventral root ganglion of the spinal cord.
It is unipolar It is multipolar
Comprises of a short axon Comprises of a long axon
An adult has an average of 10 million sensory nerves in the body Half million of motor neurons are found in the body
Found in eyes, skin, ears, tongue and nose Found in muscles and glands


Lateral wall of nose

Short essay on lateral wall of nose:

The lateral wall of the nasal cavity is a region of the nasopharynx essential for humidifying and filtering the air we breathe in nasally.

Here we can find a structure called agger nasi. The agger nasi is also referred to as the ‘nasoturbinal concha’ or ‘nasal ridge.’ It can be described as a small mound or ridge found in the lateral side of the nasal cavity. The structure is located midway along the anterior aspect of the middle nasal concha. An abnormally enlarged form may restrict the drainage of the frontal sinus by obstructing the frontal recess area.

The lateral cartilage (upper lateral cartilage, lateral process of septal nasal cartilage) is situated below the inferior margin of the nasal bone, and is flattened, and triangular in shape.


What is surfactant and what is its function?

Surfactant is a mixture of fat and proteins made in the lungs. Surfactant coats the alveoli (the air sacs in the lungs where oxygen enters the body). This prevents the alveoli from sticking together when your baby exhales (breathes out).

Its classically known role is to decrease surface tension in alveolar air spaces to a degree that facilitates adequate ventilation of the peripheral lung.

Physiology of the eye

What is the physiology of the eye?

The eye is composed of a series of lenses and spaces that give focus to images, just as a camera does. It is composed of the vitreous humor, aqueous humor, the crystalline lens, and the cornea, and each of these has its own refraction index (the average being 1.34, because of the content of these tissues).

Physiology of the Eye

The primary function of the eye is to form a clear image of objects in our environment. These images are transmitted to the brain through the optic nerve and the posterior visual pathways.

The various tissues of the eye and its adnexa are thus designed to facilitate this function.

The Eyelids

Functions include: (1) protection of the eye from mechanical trauma, extremes of temperature and bright light, and (2) maintenance of the normal precorneal tear film, which is important for maintenance of corneal health and clarity.

The Tear Film

The tear film consists of three layers: the mucoid, aqueous and oily layers.

The mucoid layer lies adjacent to the corneal epithelium.It improves the wetting properties of the tears.

The Cornea

The primary function of the cornea is refraction. In order to perform this function, the cornea requires the following:

  • transparency
  • smooth and regular surface
  • spherical curvature of proper refractive power
  • appropriate index of refraction.

The Aqueous Humour

The aqueous humour is an optically clear solution of electrolytes (in water) that fills the space between the cornea and the lens. Normal volume is 0.3 ml. Its function is to nourish the lens and cornea.

The Vitreous Body

The vitreous consists of a three-dimensional network of collagen fibers with the interspaces filled with polymerized hyaluronic acid molecules, which are capable of holding large quantities of water.

The Lens

The lens, like the cornea, is transparent. It is avascular and depends on the aqueous for nourishment.

It has a thick elastic capsule, which prevents molecules (e.g., proteins) moving into or out of it.

The Ciliary Body

The ciliary muscle (within the ciliary body) is a mass of smooth muscle, which runs circumferentially inside the globe and is attached to the scleral spur anteriorly.


Accommodation is the process whereby relaxation of zonular fibers allows the lens to become more globular, thereby increasing its refractive power.

The Retina

This is the “photographic film” of the eye that converts light into electrical energy (transduction) for transmission to the brain.

Laryngeal Cartilages

The larynx consists of nine laryngeal cartilages: three are single (epiglottic, thyroid, cricoid) and three are paired (arytenoid, corniculate, and cuneiform).

  • Thyroid:
    • Largest of the cartilages
    • It is composed of two plate-like laminae that fuse on the anterior side of the cartilage to form a peak, called the laryngeal prominence, known as the Adam’s apple.
    • Its posterior border is elongated both inferiorly and superiorly to form the superior horn of thyroid cartilage and inferior horn of thyroid cartilage.
  • Cricoid:
    • Only laryngeal cartilage to form a complete ring
  • Epiglottic cartilage:
    • Consists of elastic cartilage, giving flexibility to the epiglottis
    • Almost entirely covered in mucosa
    • Its stalk projects superiorly and attaches to the posterior aspect of the tongue, so that during swallowing the epiglottis will move to cover the respiratory opening, thus keeping food out of the lower respiratory tubules
  • Arytenoid:
    • Pyramid shaped
    • Anchor the vocal cords
  • Corniculate:
    • Attach to the apices of the arytenoid cartilages
  • Cuneiform:
    • Do not directly attach to other cartilages

Formation of Urine

The nephrons of the kidneys process blood and create urine through a process of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion. Urine is about 95% water and 5% waste products. Nitrogenous wastes excreted in urine include urea, creatinine, ammonia, and uric acid.

Urine formation depends on three functions:

  • Filtration is accomplished by the movement of fluids from the blood into the Bowman’s Capsule
  • Reabsorption involves the transfer of essential solutes and water from the nephron back into the blood
  • Secretion involves the movement of materials from the blood back into the nephron
  • For a detailed diagram and summary, see Fig. 1 on p. 350 and Table 2 on p. 351


  • Blood running through the afferent arteriole into the glomerulus is under high pressure (65 mmHg compared to 25 mmHg normally found in capillary beds)
  • Most dissolved solutes (see Table 1, p. 349 for a list) pass through the walls of the glomerulus into the Bowman’s capsule


  • On average, 600 mL of fluid flows through the kidneys every minute
  • About 20% (or 120 mL) is filtered into the nephron
  • If all of that fluid left in urine, dehydration would be a constant danger
  • Fortunately, only 1 mL of urine is formed for every 120 mL, meaning that 119 mL of fluids and solutes are reabsorbed
  • Selective reabsorption occurs by both active and passive transport
  • Carrier molecules move Na+ ions across the cell membranes of the cells that line the nephron
  • Negative ions (Cl- and HCO3-) follow the positive Na+ ions by charge attraction
  • Many mitochondria supply energy needed for active transport
  • Reabsorption occurs until the threshold level of a substance is reached
  • Excess (like NaCl) remains in the nephron and is excreted with urine
  • Other molecules are actively transported from the proximal tubule
  • Glucose and amino acids attach to specific carrier molecules, which shuttle them out of the nephron and into the blood
  • The amount of solute that can be reabsorbed is limited
  • Ex – individuals with high blood glucose will excrete some in their urine
  • The solutes that are actively transported out of the nephron create an osmotic gradient that draws water in from the nephron
  • A second osmotic force, created by the proteins not filtered into the nephron, also help reabsorption
  • The proteins remain in the blood stream and draw water from the interstitial fluid into the blood
  • As water is reabsorbed from the nephron, the remaining solutes become more concentrated
  • Molecules like urea and uric acid will diffuse from the nephron back into the blood


  • Secretion is the movement of wastes from the blood into the nephron
  • Nitrogen containing wastes, excess H+ ions, and minerals like K+ ions are examples of substances secreted
  • Drugs (like penicillin) can also be secreted
  • Cells loaded with mitochondria line the distal tubule, providing energy for active transport

What is vital capacity and its importance?

What is vital capacity and its importance?

Vital capacity (VC) is the maximum amount of air a person can expel from the lungs after a maximum inspiration. It is equal to the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume i.e, VC = IRV + TV + ERV.

The breathing capacity of the lungs expressed as the number of cubic inches or cubic centimeters of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a full inspiration. It is about 3.5 – 4.5 liters in the human body.

It promotes the act of supplying fresh air and getting rid of foul air, thereby increasing the gaseous exchange between the tissues and the environment. Thus, the greater the VC, the more is the energy available to the body. VC of a person gives important clues for diagnosing a lung problem.

Its measurement helps the doctor to decide about the possible causes of the diseases and about the line of treatment.

It determines the stamina of sportsperson and mountain climbers. Sportsperson and mountain dwellers have a higher vital capacity. Young persons have more vital capacity than aged.