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Upon hearing the news of Usman’s death Holy Prophet sat down under a tree and said. “We are morally bound to avenge Usman’s blood and whosoever wants to participate in this should take oath for this on my hand that he would remain loyal till last.” All his companions took the oath placing their hands upon the hand of the Holy Prophet. Holy Prophet declaring his right hand to be the hand of Usman placing it on his other hand swore on behalf of Usman. This event is reported in the Holy Quran in these words:
“Verily those who give their hand to thee, In fact gave their hand to God, the Hand of’ God is over their hands, then anyone who violates his oath, does so to harm his own soul and who fulfills his covenant with God. God will soon grant him a great reward.” (Sura Al fath: V, 10)
After this oath was taken information came in that the news of Usman’s death was not true.
After a long discussion of two days and two nights, Quraish sent a delegation led by Sohail Bin Umro to Hudaibiya to negotiate with Mohammad an agreement of non-aggression between Muslims and the people of Makka. Holy Prophet told Ali to prepare the document of the agreement.
Ali started writing. “In the Name of Allah the most Beneficent and Merciful.”
This agreement was made on the 7th year of Hegira (Migration of the Holy Prophet. All the Muslims present there were feeling disgraced and were depressed because of the terms and conditions of the agreement. Omar approached Holy Prophet and asked him. “Didn’t you say that we would go to Makka and perform pilgrimage?” Holy Prophet consoled him saying. “Indeed. God willing, you will go to Makka and have the opportunity of circumambulating Ka’aba.”
Miʿrāj, in Islam, the ascension of the Prophet Muhammad into heaven. In this tradition, Muhammad is prepared for his meeting with God by the archangels Jibrīl (Gabriel) and Mīkāl (Michael) one evening while he is asleep in the Kaʿbah, the sacred shrine of Mecca.
In the twelfth year of his mission, the Prophet made his night journey from Mecca to Jerusalem, and thence to heaven. His journey, known in history as Miraj (Ascension), was a real bodily one and not only a vision. It was at this time that Allah ordered the Muslims to pray the five daily prayers.
Almighty Allah has said: Glorified (and Exalted) be He (Allah) above all that (evil) they associate with Him, Who took His slave Muhammad for a journey by night from AlMasjid-al-Haram (at Makka) to the farthest mosque (in Jerusalem), the neighborhood whereof We have blessed, in order that We might show him (Muhammad) of 0ur Ayat (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, etc.). Verily He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.”
Constitution of Medina, document from early Islamic history based upon two agreements concluded between the clans of Medina and the Prophet Muhammad soon after the Hijrah (Latin: Hegira), or emigration, to Medina in AD 622.
After the migration of Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) from Makka to Madina, there was significant political instability in Yathrib (Madina). After the culmination of war named “Buaath”, there was also a vacuum of leadership in Madina. Prophet (SAW) was a suitable and appropriate leader for the resident of Madina to fill the vacuum of leadership there. So after migration, the Holy Prophet (SAW) established a grand political coalition among all residents of Madina, (Ansaar, Muhajereen and Jews) to avoid war and settle differences in a peaceful manner. For this purpose a written agreement (Meesaq e Madina) was signed between the Muslims and Jews. This milestone document of Islamic history is considered as the first written constitution, wherein all stakeholders were given equal status and declared as ‘Ummat’. This accord provided a peaceful life to the residents of Madina alongside establishing credentials of a sagacious leader for the Holy Prophet.