Hepatitis

Definition:

Hepatitis is the inflammation of the hepatic cells (Kuffer’s cells)

Etiology:

  1. Viral (Often)
  2. Bacteria or toxic (due to injury)

Types of the Hepatitis

  1. Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H.

Clinical features:

  1. Anorexia
  2. Nausea
  3. Vomiting
  4. Lethargy
  5. Elevated ALT & AST level
  6. Hepatomegaly
  7. Tenderness
  8. Dark urine
  9. Elevated serum bilirubin level
  10. Clay color stool
  11. Malaise
  12. Discomfort
  13. Fever
  14. Urticaria
  15. Hepatomegaly

Incubation periods:

© HAV is a RNA virus 15-25 days

© HBV is a DNA virus 18-45 days

© HCV is a RNA virus 15-160 days

  1. HDV (Delta Virus) is a RNA 02-25 days
  2. HEV is a RNA virus
  3. HGV is a RNA virus

Complication:

  1. Cirrhosis of the liver
  2. Death

Investigations:

  1. Liver function studies
  2. Hepatic serology
  3. HGs Ag
  4. Anti-HBs-IgH & Ig G
  5. Anti-HAV-Igh & Ig G
  6. Anti-HCV
  7. PCR

Medical management :

  1. HA vaccine/ HB vaccine (Prevention)
  2. HC, HD, HE, HF, HG, HH (Treatment) Inj: Interferon.

Transmission:

HAV

  1. Poor personal hygiene
  2. Poor sanitation
  3. Contaminated food, milk
  4. Sexual contact
  5. Feco-oral

HBV

  1. Blood transmission
  2. Semen transmission
  3. Saliva transmission
  4. Contaminated needles
  5. Infected partners

HCV

  1. Tattoo
  2. Organ transplantation
  3. Less frequent routes is sexual contact

HDV

  1. Blood transmission
  2. Semen transmission
  3. Saliva transmission
  4. Contaminated needles
  5. Infected partners

HEV

  1. Feco-oral route
  2. Most common is drinking water

HGV

  1. Blood donor

HCV

  1. Blood transmission

Nursing Diagnosis:

  1. Fatigue
  2. Activity intolerance
  3. Fluid volume deficit
  4. Infection
  5. Nutritional altered
  6. Pain
  7. Health maintenance
  8. Skin integrity
  9. Injury

Prevention Measures:

For Feco-oral transmission:

  1. Proper hand washing by patient & staff
  2. Wearing gloves when handling feces & urine
  3. Proper handling of contaminated utensils & linens For Percutaneous:
  4. Wearing gloves while handling blood & body fluids
  5. Proper disposable of needles & Body fluids
  6. Avoidance from open cuts
  7. Teaching patients to avoid sexual contact until result of liver function tests have returned to the normal.

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