Health Advantages of Sex

Sex is a vital part of your life.

Sex and sexuality are natural parts of existence. Aside from reproduction, sex may be about closeness and pleasure. Sexual activity, also known as penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) or masturbation, can provide numerous unexpected advantages to many aspects of your life:

  • physical
  • intellectual
  • emotional
  • psychological
  • social

Sexual health is more than just preventing illnesses and unexpected pregnancies. According to the American Sexual Health Association, it is also about accepting that sex may be an essential part of your life.

How does sex help your body?

This study reveals that sex can be beneficial to cardiovascular health in young men and women. Though sex isn’t sufficient exercise in and of itself, it can be called mild exercise.

Sex may provide you with a variety of advantages, including:

  • blood pressure lowering
  • calorie consumption
  • improving heart health and muscular strength lowering your chances of heart disease, stroke, and hypertension
  • enhancing libido

People who are sexually active tend to exercise more regularly and eat healthier than those who are less sexually active. Physical fitness may also increase overall sexual performance.

9 strategies to boost your sexual performance:

Healthy immune system

Persons who had regular intercourse (one to two times per week) had higher immunoglobulin A (IgA) in their saliva, according to a research of immunity in people in romantic relationships. People who had sex seldom (less than once a week) had considerably lower IgA levels.

IgA is an antibody that plays a role in disease prevention and is the first line of defence against human papillomavirus, or HPV.

Those who had sex more than three times per week, on the other hand, had the same amount of IgA as those who had infrequent sex. According to the study, worry and stress may wipe out the favourable impacts of sex.

better sleep

During an orgasm, your body produces oxytocin, generally known as the “love” or “intimacy” hormone, as well as endorphins. Sedation can result from the combination of these hormones.

Better sleep can help with:

  • a more powerful immune system
  • a higher life expectancy,
  • feeling more relaxed, and
  • having more energy during the day

Relief from headaches

According to another study, sexual activity can offer complete or partial relief from migraines and cluster headaches.

Among those who were sexually active at the time of their attacks:

  • During a migraine, 60% experienced an improvement.
  • During a migraine, 70% experienced moderate to total relief.
  • 37 percent reported relief in cluster headache symptoms.
  • 90% received moderate to total relief from cluster headaches.

How sex helps both males and females?

In males

According to a recent study, males who had more frequent penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) had a lower chance of acquiring prostate cancer.

According to one study, males who had 4.6 to 7 ejaculations each week were 36% less likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer before the age of 70. In contrast, men reported ejaculating 2.3 or less times each week on average.

Sex may potentially alter men’s mortality. One 10-year research found that males who had frequent orgasms (defined as two or more per week) had a 50% lower mortality risk than those who had sex less often.

Although the evidence is mixed, more sexual activity may improve the quality and health of your sperm, according to some studies.

In Females:

An orgasm stimulates blood flow and produces natural pain-relieving substances.

Sexual activity in women can:

  • enhance bladder control
  • ease menstruation and premenstrual cramps
  • boost fertility
  • create stronger pelvic muscles
  • assist generate more vaginal lubrication
  • may protect you against endometriosis, or the growth of tissue outside the uterus

Sex can help strengthen your pelvic floor. A stronger pelvic floor can also provide benefits such as decreased discomfort during sex and a lower risk of vaginal prolapse. According to one source, PVI can result in reflexive vaginal contractions triggered by penile thrusting.

Women who remain sexually active after menopause are less likely to get substantial vaginal atrophy, or weakening of the vaginal walls. Pain during sex and urinary symptoms might be caused by vaginal atrophy.

How does sex help your mental health?

Sexual activity, whether with a partner or masturbation, can have significant psychological and emotional advantages. Sex, like exercise, can help relieve stress and anxiety while increasing enjoyment.

According to research, sexual activity (classified as PVI) may be related to:

  • higher pleasure with your mental health
  • enhanced trust, closeness, and love in your relationships
  • better capacity to sense, recognise, and express emotions
  • reduced utilisation of your immature psychological defence system, or mental processes to decrease emotional conflict suffering`

Sexual activity may have an impact on your well-being and capacity to think as you become older. According to research, sexually active persons aged 50 to 90 had stronger memory. They were also less prone to experience depression and loneliness.

Booster of self-esteem

Sexual activity on a regular basis, whether with a partner or alone, might make you seem younger. This is attributed, in part, to the production of oestrogen during intercourse.

One study discovered a link between regular sexual activity and seeming much younger (between seven to 12 years younger). The majority of these people were likewise at ease with expressing their sexuality and sexual identity.

Social advantages

Because of oxytocin, sex can help you bond with your spouse. Oxytocin can help people form connections. You may discover that frequent, reciprocal sexual enjoyment aids in interpersonal connection.

When couples meet one other’s sexual urges, they generally report higher levels of relationship satisfaction. When you are able to communicate yourself and your sexual wants, you may notice great progress in your relationship.

What are the advantages to masturbation?

Masturbation can provide many of the same benefits as sex, but it also has its own set of benefits, which include:

  • improved sex between partners
  • better awareness of your own body
  • higher orgasmic capacity
  • improved self-esteem and body image
  • more sexual pleasure
  • therapy for sexual problems

Masturbation is regarded completely harmless and has little health hazards. There is no danger of pregnancy or sexually transmitted illnesses when done alone (STIs). According to Planned Parenthood, it improves mental health rather than mental disease or instability, as some misconceptions indicate.

Abstinence and celibacy

Sex isn’t the only factor that influences one’s health or happiness. You may live an active and happy life without having sex. The advantages of sex stem from the sensation of pleasure, which studies have shown may also be obtained by listening to music, interacting with pets, and having a strong religious beliefs. According to the National Health Service in the United Kingdom, a long-term study of nuns found that many of them lived into their 90s and beyond.

Takeaway

Sex is an essential component of existence and total well-being. Orgasms play an important role in romantic bonding. Sex can provide physical and mental advantages such as lower risk of heart disease, increased self-esteem, and more.

You can have identical results without intercourse. Other enjoyable activities, such as exercising, engaging with a pet, and maintaining a strong social network, may provide similar advantages. Sex is only one strategy to improve your overall quality of life.

However, whether sex is a part of your life because of a relationship or desire, it is critical that you be able to communicate and enjoy sexual fulfilment. When you make time for sex, you may discover relaxation and an increase in happiness.

 

Sex during periods/Menstruation

Is It Safe to Have Sex During Your Period?

  • Benefits
  • Side Effects
  • Tips,

 Can you have sex during your period?

You will have a menstrual cycle once a month during your reproductive years. There’s no need to avoid sexual activity during your period unless you’re very sensitive. Though period sex might be messy, it is completely safe. Having sex while menstruation can also provide certain benefits, such as relief from menstrual cramps.

 

Benefits

There are a few advantages to having sex during your period:

  1. Pain relief from cramping

Menstrual cramps may be relieved by orgasms. Menstrual cramps are caused by your uterus contracting in order to discharge its lining. When you have an orgasm, the muscles in your uterus contract as well. Then they let go. Period cramps should be relieved by this release.

Sex also causes the production of endorphins, which are hormones that make you feel wonderful. Furthermore, sexual activity diverts your attention away from your period discomfort.

  1. Short duration of periods

Sex may cause your periods to be shorter. Muscle spasms during an orgasm force the uterine contents out more quickly. This might lead to shorter durations.

  1. increased sexual desire

Because of hormonal shifts, your libido alters during your menstrual cycle. While many women indicate that their sex desire increases about two weeks before their period, others report feeling more turned on during their period.

  1. Natural lubricant

During your period, you can store the KY. The blood serves as a natural lubricant.

  1. It could help with your headache.

Approximately half of women with migraine headaches have them during their periods. Although most women with menstrual migraines avoid sex during their attacks, many of those who do report that it improves their headaches partially or entirely.

 What are the possible side effects?

The most obvious disadvantage of having sex during your period is the mess. When you have a high flow, blood might go on you, your partner, and the bedding. Aside from making your bed messy, bleeding might make you feel self-conscious. Anxiety over making a mess might detract from the enjoyment of sex.

Another concern about having sex during your period is the possibility of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) such as HIV or hepatitis. These viruses dwell in blood and can be transmitted by contact with contaminated menstrual blood. Using condoms whenever you have sex reduces your chances of transmitting or contracting a STI.

If you intend to have sex while on your period and are wearing a tampon, you must remove it beforehand. During intercourse, a forgotten tampon can be pushed so far up into your vagina that you’ll need to visit a doctor to have it removed.

 

Can you get pregnant/conceive?

If you aren’t actively attempting to conceive, utilizing protection is a smart idea regardless of where you are in your menstrual cycle. Your chances of becoming pregnant are decreased during your period, but it is still possible.

You are most likely to become pregnant during ovulation, which occurs around 14 days before your period begins. However, each woman’s cycle duration is unique, and your cycle length might alter monthly. If you have a short menstrual cycle, you are more likely to become pregnant during your period.

Consider the fact that sperm may dwell in your body for up to seven days. So, if you have a 22-day cycle and ovulate soon after having your period, you may be releasing an egg while sperm are still in your reproductive tract.

 

Is it necessary to wear/use protection?

Using protection will also protect you against STIs. Because viruses like HIV thrive in menstrual blood, you can not only get a STI during your period, but you can also more readily transmit one to your partner.

Wear a latex condom every time you have sex to lower your chances of becoming pregnant and contracting a STI. If you or your spouse are allergic to latex, there are other options for protection. You can get advice from your pharmacist or doctor.

 

Tips on having sex during your period

Here are a few pointers to make period sex more pleasant and less messy:

Communicate openly and honestly with your spouse. Tell them how you feel about having sex during your period and inquire about their feelings. If either of you is apprehensive, discuss the reasons for your unease.

If you’re wearing a tampon, take it out before you start messing about.

To collect any blood drips, place a dark-colored cloth on the bed. Or, to avoid the mess totally, have sex in the shower or bath.

Keep a damp towel or wet wipes beside the bed for cleanup.

Wear a latex condom with your lover. It will provide protection against pregnancy and STIs.

If your typical sexual position makes you uncomfortable, try something new. Try resting on your side with your spouse behind you, for example.

 Takeaway

Don’t let your period prevent you from having fun. If you do a little planning, sex may be just as delightful on those five or so days as it is the rest of the month. You might be startled to discover that sex is much more stimulating during your period.

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease that affects the myelin sheath of neurons in the CNS. Multiple-Sclerosis-Infographic Multiple sclerosis is a disease that causes vision problems, numbness and tingling, muscle weakness, and other problems. It happens when the body’s infection-fighting system attacks and damages nerve cells and their connections in the brain and spinal cord. When the body’s infection-fighting system, called the “immune system,” attacks the body’s own cells, it is called an “autoimmune response.” It causes damage to myelin, the protective coating around the nerves. When myelin is damaged, messages can no longer be clearly transmitted from the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body. Many people refer to multiple sclerosis as “MS.” INCIDENCE

  • Onset occurs between 20-40 years of age.
  • Women are more affected than men. (AANN, 2011).
  • Whites are more affected than Hispanics, blacks, or Asians.
  • Most prevalent in colder climates of North America & Europe.
  • Migration.

 

ETIOLOGY & RISK FACTORS

  • Exact cause is not known yet.
  • Most theories suggest that MS is an immunogenetic viral disease (with Epstein Barr virus).

Risk factors are:

  • Age (most of the time between 20-40 yrs).
  • Sex (women have more chance).
  • Family history (genetic susceptibility).
  • Certain infections (like Epsteinbarr virus).
  • Climate (more in cold climate areas).
  • Certain auto-immune diseases (higher risks with thyroid disease, type-1 DM or IBD).
  • Smoking.
  • Stress, fatigue.
  • Physical injury.
  • Pregnancy (may relating to stress to labour, or puerperium).

 

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Due to etiological factors Activated T-cells (which recognise self Ag) expressed in CNS, & Macrophages (B-cells) enters the brain from peripherral circulation Production of inflammatory cytokines & reactive O2 species Inflammation Then activated T-cells & B-cells cause demyelination and destruction of oligodendrocytes Formation of plaque Causes scarring & destruction of sheath Compensatory system starts causing subsidation of edema & inflammation After that some remyelination process occurs which is often incomplete Multiple sclerosis. CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS The course of illness varies from person to person.

  1. Fatigue is the lack of physical and mental energy that impacts daily tasks. Fatigue can be physical or mental and is not correlated to how much rest or sleep a person gets. It is one of the most common symptoms and impacts about 80 percent of people living with MS. It can be http://nursingfile.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/multiple-sclerosis-249x300.jpg the most debilitating factor, even for those who have minimal physical restrictions, and is one of the leading causes for people leaving the workforce.
  2. Heat intolerance in MS is a temporary worsening of symptoms with elevated body temperatures including hot and humid weather, exercising, sunbathing, or fevers. A small rise in body temperature (a quarter to a half a degree) can cause increased fatigue, tingling, blurry vision, or even the inability to walk. Most people living with MS have to avoid outdoor activity and/or use cooling garments to complete simple, daily activities due to this intolerance.
  3. Cognitive dysfunction affects high-level brain functions such as memory, attention/concentration, the ability to solve daily problems, understand and use language, and process information from different senses. Impaired cognition affects 50-65 percent of those living with MS and is another major reason for leaving the workforce early.
  4. Pain/abnormal sensation is a common symptom with MS and can be directly related to neuropathic pain (the disease process itself) or from musculoskeletal pain (changes to the body and immobility). The pain experience is unique to each person and can greatly limit his or her ability to participate in and enjoy socialization and activities. Those living with MS can also experience various abnormal sensations such as numbness and tingling, prickling, sharp/stabbing pains, hot/cold sensations, and burning pains which can also impact movement and daily function.
  5. Depression comes in various forms and can be one of the most common symptoms in MS, more common in people with MS than the general population. Depression can happen to anyone at any time during the disease course and does not correlate to disease severity, however it can greatly impact someone’s quality of life and ability to participate in daily activities.

 

COMPLICATIONS People with multiple sclerosis may also develop:

  • Muscle stiffness or spasms
  • Paralysis, typically in the legs
  • Problems with bladder, bowel or sexual function
  • Mental changes, such as forgetfulness or mood swings
  • Depression
  • Epilepsy

DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION

  • There is no definitive test for MS.
  • Detailed history of episodes of neurologic dysfunction
  • Physical examination.

Other tests include:-

  • CSF evaluation (for presence of IgG antibody or oligoclonal bonding)
  • Evoked potentials of optic pathways & auditory system to assess presence of slowed nerve conduction.
  • MRI of brain and spinal cord (to determine the presence of MS plaques)
  • CT scan (to detect areas of demyelination, but with less detail as by MRI).

 

MEDICAL MANAGEMENT

• No exact cure.
• Aim is to prevent or postpone the long term disability (often evolves slowly over many years).
• The treatment falls into 3 categories:-
1. Treatment of acute relapses.
2. Treatment aimed at disease management.
3. Symptomatic treatment.

1. Treatment of acute relapse:-

  • Corticosteroid therapy ( anti-inflammatory & immunosuppressive property )
  • For example:
  • Methyl-prednisolone , (given I.V. or orally)
  • Azathioprine & cyclophosphamide (in severe cases)

2. Treat exacerbations:- (treatment aimed at disease management)

  • Interferon-Beta 1b
    • Betaseron, given subcutaneously. (antiviral & immuno-regulatory) (For ambulatory clients with relapsing –remitting).
  • Interferon Beta 1a
    • Avonex, (for treating replasing form of MS).
  • Glatiramer acetate
    • Copaxane, (for relapsing re-emitting MS).

3. Symptomatic treatment:-

  • For bladder dysfunction:
    • oxybutynin, propantheline.
  • For constipation:
    • psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid, suppositories.
  • For fatigue:
    • amantadine, modafinil .
  • For spasticity:
    • baclofen, diazefen, dantrolone.
  • For Tremor :
    • propanolol, phenobarbital, clonazepam.
  • For dysesthesias & trigeminal neurolgia:
    • carbamazepine, phenytoin, amitriptyline.
  • For dysesthesias:
    • Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is also helpful.

4. Nutritional therapy:-

  • Megavitamin therapy (cobalamin/vit. B12 and vit. C)
  • Low fat diet.
  • high roughage diet (to relieve constipation)

5. Other therapies:- (to improve neurological functioning)

  • Physical and speech therapies.
  • Exercise.
  • Water exercise.

 

SURGICAL MANAGEMENT

  • Deep brain stimulation:-
    • if other options have failed then a device is implanted that stimulates an area of brain. (in case of severe tremor in limbs).
  • Implantation of a drug catheter or pump:
    • a catheter is placed in lower spinal area to deliver a constant flow of drug like baclofen. (in case of severe pain or spasticity).

NURSING DIAGNOSIS:

    • Impaired physical mobility related to fatigue & weakness
    • Activity intolerance r/t weakness, dizziness, and unsteady gait
    • Self-esteem disturbance r/t loss of health & lifestyle changes

 

NURSING MANAGEMENT

    1. Promotes physical mobility – activity and rest
  • no vigorous physical exercise
  • frequent rest periods
  • walking and gait exercises
  • minimize spasticity and contractures – warm packs, daily muscle stretching
  • activities: swimming, stationary bike, progressive wt bearing
  • Minimize effects of immobility; skin integrity; cough and deep breathing exercises.
    1. Prevent injury – walk with feet wide apart, environment awareness and modification, gait training. Use of assistive devices – walker, cane etc.
    2. Promote bladder & bowel control – Urinal/bedpan readily available, po fluids intake schedule/voiding schedule, increase fiber in diet, intermittent self-catheterization
    3. Improve sensory and cognitive function:
  • Vision – eye patch for diplopia; prism glasses for reading; talking books
  • Speech – slurred, low volume, problems with phonation – speech therapist
  • Cognitive & emotional responses – forgetfulness, easily distracted, emotionally labile, social activities; hobbies.
    1. Development of coping strengths – education about diseases process; stress relief; network of services – social, speech, PT, psychological, homemaker/meal on wheels
    2. Improve self-care – assistive devices, raised toilet seat, shower bench, reached tongs, decrease physical and emotional stress, decrease exposure of extreme temperatures
    3. Adapting to sexual dysfunction – counseling, plan sexual activity, willingness to experiment.

Answer Key: Pre-Interview Written test for the post of Staff Nurse (BPS-16)- SPSC-2019

Sindh public service commission (SPSC)
Pre-Interview Written test for the post of Staff Nurse (BPS-16)
Question Paper: 24th August,2019

Answer key
1. C
2. B
3. B
4. A
5. C
6. C
7. A
8. C
9. A
10. A

11. C
12. B
13. B
14. D
15. C
16. B
17. A
18. C
19. D
20. B

21. A
22. D
23. A
24. C
25. D
26. B
27. B
28. B
29. C
30. C

31. C
32. D
33. B
34. B
35. A
36. B
37. C
38. B
39. B
40. B

41. B
42. C
43. C
44. D
45. A
46. D
47. D
48. B
49. B
50. A

 

For QUESTION PAPER, please click on the below link:

Pre-Interview Written test for the post of Staff Nurse (BPS-16)- SPSC-2019

 

Pre-Interview Written test for the post of Staff Nurse (BPS-16)- SPSC-2019

Sindh public service commission (SPSC)
Pre-Interview Written test for the post of Staff Nurse (BPS-16)
Question Paper: 24th August,2019

1. Synonym of “Absolute”.
(A) Half
(B) Small
(C) Complete
(D) Divide
2. The pacemaker of the heart is termed as:
(A) Atrioventricular node
(B) Sinoatrial node
(C) Left and right bundle branches
(D) Purkinje fibers
3. Which plasmodium cases “malignant malaria”?
(A) P. Vivax
(B) P. Falciparum
(C) P. Ovale
(D) P. Malaria
4. Inflammation of the tongue is termed as:
(A) Glossitis
(B) Gingivitis
(C) Stomatitis
(D) Parotitis
5. Choose the correct option: Ahmed is more responsible________ any _______________boy in his class.
(A) Then, some
(B) Then, some
(C) Than, other
(D) None of these
6. A healthy person can donate blood in a:
(A) Six or seven
(B) Five or six
(C) Three or four
(D) Two of three
7. Where does fertilization of an ovum by sperm usually take place?
(A) In the fallopian tube
(B) In the vagina
(C) In the uterus
(D) In the ovary
8. The world’s tallest mountain peak is in:
(A) China
(B) Pakistan
(C) Nepal
(D) India
9. Hypokalemia is the condition if serum __________ level is less than normal
(A) Potassium
(B) Sodium
(C) Calcium
(D) Chlorine
10. Which of the following colored container must be used for discarding human anatomical waste in hospital?
(A) Yellow
(B) Red
(C) Blue
(D) Black

11. From among the underlined words below find the error, if any: Had (A) he been (B) there, he would(C) grappled (D) with the situation.
A B C D
12. When helping a client who is recovering from a stroke to walk, the nurse should assist:
(A) On the client’s strong side
(B) On the client’s weak side
(C) From behind the client
(D) With the wheelchair
13. The Suez Canal is in:
(A) Panama
(B) Egypt
(C) Sweden
(D) Switzerland
14. Which temperature is considered most accurate?
(A) Oral
(B) Axillary
(C) Groin
(D) Rectal
15. Hygiene is a word derived from?
(A) Latin
(B) English
(C) Greek
(D) French

16. One teaspoon contains:
(A) 2 ml
(B) 5 ml
(C) 10 ml
(D) 15 ml
17. The nerve, which carries messages from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands is:
(A) Motor nerve
(B) Sensory nerve
(C) Mixed nerve
(D) Autonomic nerve
18. Which type of precautions should be nurse implement for the client diagnosed with septic meningitis?
(A) Standard precaution
(B) Airborne precaution
(C) Contact precaution
(D) Droplet precaution
19. Most important aspect of hand washing is:
(A) Time
(B) Type of soap
(C) Surface tension
(D) Friction
20. Which of the following diseases is inheritable?
(A) Leukaemia
(B) Colour blindness
(C) Malignancy
(D) Hepatitis
21. Precautions used when caring for a rubella patient is:
(A) Droplet
(B) Contact
(C) Universal
(D) Hand washing
22. It is appropriate for a nurse to share the information regarding a client’s status with:
(A) Any one the nurse sees fit
(B) The client’s family members
(C) The client’s roommate
(D) The staff on the next shift
23. A method of making the victim to breath passively is:
(A) Artificial respiration
(B) Spontaneous respiration
(C) Deep breathing
(D) Kusmal breathing
24. Deficiency of __________________ in blood causes simple goiter.
(A) Sodium
(B) Iron
(C) Iodine
(D) Calcium
25. The nurse is preparing to take vital sign in an alert client admitted to the hospital with dehydration secondary to vomiting and diarrhea. What is the best method used to assess the client’s temperature?
(A) Oral
(B) Axillary
(C) Rectal
(D) Heat sensitive tape

26. The photoreceptors in eye are present in the:
(A) Iris
(B) Retina
(C) Sclera
(D) Cornea
27. Tendon connects:
(A) Cartilage with muscles
(B) Bone with muscles
(C) Ligament with muscles
(D) Bone with bone
28. The prescription orders are 0.125 mg digoxin orally. Tablets containing 0.25 mg is available. How many tablets will you administer?
(A) 1 tablet
(B) 1/2 Tablet
(C) 2 Tablets
(D) ¼ tablet
29. Which of the following is intravascular fluid?
(A) Lymph
(B) Pleural fluid
(C) Plasma
(D) Synovial fluid
30. The highest concentration of HIV virus is found in?
(A) Saliva
(B) CSF
(C) Blood
(D) Semen
31. Antonym of “Barren”:
(A) Radiant
(B) Besiege
(C) Fertile
(D) Full
32. To best communicate with a client who is totally deaf, the nurse should:
(A) Smile frequently and speak loudly
(B) Smile often and talk rapidly
(C) Avoid eye contact
(D) Write out information
33. The capital of Canada is:
(A) Toronto
(B) Ottawa
(C) Ontario
(D) Montreal
34. Information given by the sufferer about his illness is termed as:
(A) Sign
(B) Symptoms
(C) Observation
(D) Diagnosis
35. Which of the following has lowest pH?
(A) Gastric juice
(B) Hepatic bile
(C) Pancreatic juice
(D) Diagnosis

36. When a client has left-sided weakness, what part of a sweater is put on first?
(A) Both sleeves
(B) Left sleeves
(C) Client’s choice
(D) Right sleeve
37. Choose the correct option: “Zulfiqar _____________ this house last year”.
(A) Sells
(B) Sell
(C) Sold
(D) Is selling
38. Best method of disinfection of hospital waste is:
(A) Fumigation
(B) Incineration
(C) Sunlight
(D) Burying
39. The last sense a dying client will lose is:
(A) Smell
(B) Hearing
(C) Taste
(D) Sight
40. A thousand ml. of Normal Saline is to be infused in 8 hours. What should be the rate of flow pert minute?
(A) 20 drops
(B) 30 drops
(C) 40 drops
(D) 50 drops
41. Route of transmission of Hepatitis B is:
(A) Oral
(B) Potential
(C) Faeco oral
(D) Contaminated water
42. Where is erythropoietin hormone synthesized?
(A) Spleen
(B) Liver
(C) Kidney
(D) Thyroid
43. A client needs to be repositioned but is heavy and the nurse is not sure she can move the client alone. The nurse should:
(A) Try to move the client alone
(B) Have the family do it
(C) Ask another nurse to help
(D) Go on to another task
44. Where is the tomb of Mughal Emperor Jahangir?
(A) Multan
(B) Karachi
(C) Peshawar
(D) Lahore
45. Mode of transmission of Hepatitis E is?
(A) Water borne
(B) Blood borne
(C) Air borne
(D) Trans placental

46. The international court of Justice is located in:
(A) New York
(B) London
(C) Geneva
(D) The Hague
47. BCG (Bacillus Calmatte Guerine) vaccination is injected to get immunity from:
(A) Polio
(B) Cholera
(C) Small pox
(D) Tuberculosis
48. Cortisone is ___________.
(A) Protein
(B) Steroid
(C) Carbohydrate
(D) Nucleic acid
49. Hearing receptor cells are located in ______________.
(A) Ossecles
(B) Organ of corti
(C) Oval windows
(D) Eardrum
50. Which of the following is a first-line drug used for pain management?
(A) Acetaminophen
(B) Clonidine
(C) Morphine
(D) Ketamine

 

For ANSWER KEY, please click on the below link:

Answer Key: Pre-Interview Written test for the post of Staff Nurse (BPS-16)- SPSC-2019

Is it Possible to Get Pregnant Without Having Sex? You Might Be Surprised by the Answer

Women are claiming that this has happened to them; are they telling the truth?

Everyone who has taken a basic sex education class is aware that having unprotected sex carries the risk of becoming pregnant. As a result, it’s difficult to believe that a woman can become pregnant without having penetrative sex. It turns out that it isn’t, and some people online claim that it happened to them.

Sammi Isabel’s story was told in a TikTok video, which quickly went viral. Isabel stated in the video that she became crampy at her prom and discovered her period was a week late. Despite the fact that she was a virgin at the time, she took a pregnancy test—and it came back positive. “And that’s how I have a 5-year-old son,” she captioned the photo.

Isabel insisted in a later TikTok that she wasn’t making up her story. “I just want people to know it’s a possibility,” she explained.

Isabel is far from the first woman to claim something similar happened to her. Wathoni Anyassi revealed on her YouTube channel LoloTalks that she became pregnant as a virgin as well. “I thought, ‘Wow, pregnant.'” ‘How did this happen?’ she recalls thinking in her video.

It’s easy to dismiss these stories as hoaxes. Ob-gyns, on the other hand, swear that these so-called virgin pregnancies do exist.

More women than you might think have gotten pregnant without having sex.

According to a data analysis published in the BMJ in 2013, 45 of the 7,870 women who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health said they had a virgin pregnancy that wasn’t related to reproductive assistance, such as IVF or intrauterine insemination (IUI). The researchers discovered that these reports were more common among women who signed chastity pledges or whose parents didn’t talk to them about sex and birth control much, if at all.

A major caveat, according to the researchers: getting pregnant without having sex is usually difficult to prove. “Even with numerous enhancements and safeguards to optimise reporting accuracy,” they wrote, “researchers may still face challenges in the collection and analysis of self-reported data on potentially sensitive topics.”

However, Lauren Streicher, MD, a clinical obstetrics and gynaecology professor at Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine, tells Health that many clinicians have observed this. “Many obstetricians have experiences about delivering someone who claims to be a virgin with an unbroken hymen,” she explains. “There are unquestionably virgin births.”

The use of an intact hymen—a small amount of additional tissue around the vaginal opening—to prove virginity is controversial, because the hymen can rip or stretch over time as a result of wearing tampons, having gynaecological exams, and engaging in strenuous activity. Dr. Streicher believes that if a lady has an intact hymen and claims she’s never had penetrative sex, her virgin pregnancy narrative is more likely.

Other ob-gyns agree that this is a thing. “Indeed, this is feasible,” says Mary Jane Minkin, MD, a clinical professor of obstetrics and gynaecology and reproductive sciences at Yale Medical School.

“The danger of getting pregnant in this method is very low because sperm can only live for a brief time outside of the body,” women’s health expert Jessica Shepherd, M.D., an ob-gyn in Dallas, Texas, tells Health. “However, it is still feasible and has happened in women.”

Okay, but how can you get pregnant if you don’t have sex?

There must be sperm and an egg, among other things, for a pregnancy to develop. Those two are normally associated with penetrative intercourse, but Dr. Shepherd points out that they can also be associated with messing around.

“This can happen when sperm get into the vagina—for example, if the male ejaculates at the vaginal opening, or if a partner’s erect penis comes into contact with the body near the vagina,” she explains. Dr. Minkin believes the initial few drops of seminal fluid (the fluid that carries sperm out of a man’s penis) “have lots of sperm,” adding, “they simply need to make their way up into the vagina and up to the cervix.”

According to Dr. Minkin, virgin pregnancies are more likely to occur in younger people who are more fertile. “Women need to know that this is clearly a genuine issue and that pregnancies may occur without penetration,” Dr. Streicher adds. All you need is sperm at the vaginal opening—they’re terrific swimmers.”

So, what can people do to avoid a virgin pregnancy?

FWIW, this is an uncommon occurrence, so don’t lie awake at night wondering that you’re pregnant if you didn’t go all the way. Having said that, there is enough of a danger of becoming pregnant without having intercourse that you should probably take measures in the future.

If your partner’s penis or semen comes into touch with or goes close to your vagina, even if it doesn’t go inside, “use the same contraception that you would use if you were having penetrative intercourse,” Dr. Streicher says. “It’s really no different.”

Barrier birth-control techniques (such as condoms containing spermicide) can be beneficial, according to Dr. Shepherd. Plan B is also a possibility if you’re not sure how safe you were when you were fooling about, according to her. Dr. Minkin adds that long-acting reversible contraception, such as an IUD or a birth control implant, can assist give protection when you don’t want to worry about birth control.

Again, this isn’t very frequent, and many women have cheated on their boyfriends without becoming pregnant. Even so, it’s crucial to be aware that there is a danger.

Test or Examination for Virginity

Evidence-Based Guiding Note

What exactly is virginity testing?

The inspection of the female genitalia to determine if the examinee has had or has become accustomed to sexual intercourse is known as ‘virginity testing.’ Some tribes conduct ‘virginity testing’ to determine which women or girls are ‘virgins’ (i.e. have not had sexual intercourse). As part of the sexual assault examination of female rape survivors, some medical practitioners perform ‘virginity testing.’

The two most popular ‘virginity testing’ procedures are visual inspection of the hymen for size or rips and two-finger vaginal insertion. The goal of the latter is to assess the size of the introitus or the laxity of the vaginal wall, as well as the existence of the hymen, which is a thin membrane in the vaginal entrance that some cultures believe remains intact until women have sexual intercourse. However, research suggests that this form of testing may not give reliable findings since the existence and characteristics of the hymen vary from woman to woman and the membrane can rupture or stretch during daily activities other than sexual intercourse.

 

What are the consequences of ‘Virginity Testing’?

‘Virginity testing’ causes physical, physiological and social harm.

Physical harm: In the case of survivors of abuse, ‘virginity exams’ may cause physical injury to the women and girls being evaluated, including worsening existing injuries. Harm may also come from family who, as a result of a perceived ‘failed’ test, may harm or murder the lady or girl in the sake of ‘honour.’ As a result of the ‘virginity testing,’ some women or girls have self-harmed or tried suicide.

Psychological harm: Women and girls who have had ‘virginity tests’ have reported tremendous dread and anxiety before the test, as well as shouting, weeping, and fainting during the exam. Women and girls have also experienced long-term repercussions such as self-hatred, loss of self-esteem, depression, a sense of invasion of privacy, and re-victimization (for survivors of sexual assault).

Social harm: ‘Virginity testing’ is frequently connected with damaging traditional and cultural traditions that subject women and girls to stigma, humiliation, and dishonour in front of their families and communities. Women and girls might face ostracism or even death if they have (or are suspected of having) sexual relations outside of the rules enforced by society, such as before marriage. Furthermore, in certain societies, early marriage is utilised as a type of erroneously understood “protective” strategy to prevent the humiliation and penalties of a girl who had sexual relations before to marriage. As a result, some girls may be married off early in order to prevent any form of sexual activity before to marriage.

 

Medical Relevance: is ‘Virginity Testing’ a Determinant for Vaginal Intercourse?

According to a 2014 WHO article, the intrusive and demeaning “virginity test” or “two-finger test,” which is still employed in some countries to “verify” whether a woman or girl is a virgin, has “no scientific basis.” “The WHO guideline endorses the generally established medical position that ‘virginity tests’ are meaningless” and give no proof of whether a woman or a girl has had sexual intercourse or has been raped.

In reality, some women are born without a hymen, and the membrane can burst or stretch as a result of other activities like as athletics and weight lifting, among others.

The vaginal hymen is part of the vulva, or external genitalia, and is placed 1-2 cm within the vaginal entrance. Its structure is similar to that of the vagina in that it resembles a ruffled wreath and is made up of folds of mucous tissue that can be firmly or loosely folded. The form, size, colour, and flexibility of the hymen vary across women and during a woman’s life, depending on age, stage of sexual development, and hormone levels.

Talking About ‘Virginity Testing’ with Women and Girls

In some of these Syrian communities, young girls and women contact medical institutions and request ‘virginity testing.’ Many physicians find it difficult to deny when this occurs; they believe that if the request comes from the lady or girl herself, it is their obligation to do the test. It is critical to note that regardless of who demands the examination, the medical (in) validity of the test, as well as the human rights consequences, remain unchanged. Furthermore, the grounds for such a request are rooted in power disparities between men and women, as well as gendered cultural norms.

The individual requesting the test is most likely unable to fully exercise her right to freedom of choice, and the pressure placed on her to establish her ‘virginity’ is a violation of her rights in and of itself.

It is also vital that women and girls are targeted with awareness-raising messages in order to empower them and prevent them from feeling compelled to engage in this destructive activity.

Doctors, midwives, nurses, and psychosocial workers who hear these requests should perform the following:

  • Welcome the woman pleasantly, make her feel at ease, and ensure her that everything she says them will be kept private.
  • Determine the cause (why the woman thinks she needs such a test). Listening actively and respectfully to the woman or girl may result in the discovery of an abusive or dangerous scenario that must be handled with according to protocol.
  • Share with the lady the reasons why the test is not scientifically trustworthy, why it is a practise that must be ended, and specifics about its harmful practises (i.e. creating shame and fear to enforce control over women and girls).
  • Do not do the test; instead, assist the woman or girl in identifying alternate solutions (such as referral to case workers and devising safety plans) to the position she is in, ensuring her safety and security at all times.

Because virginity is not a medical condition, a medical examination is not necessary nor beneficial, and it may be both uncomfortable and detrimental.

Helping Women and Girls Who Have Been Subjected to ‘Virginity Testing’

Women and girls who are subjected to ‘virginity testing’ will respond differently to the examination, based on a variety of circumstances such as their age, current coping strategies, and/or social standing. Organizations should explore support interventions on a case-by-case basis and in accordance with the interests of the women or girls. Organizations with continuing case management programmes can guide women and girls who have disclosed having had a “virginity test” through several processes. Medical and emotional care, at a minimum, should be offered to these women and girls, either directly or through referrals to service providers delivering GBV-focused services.

Virginity and Pregnancy

Content
1 Virginity
2 Definitions
3 Hymen
4 Medico-Legal Aspect of Virginity
5 Pregnancy
6 Medico-Legal Aspect of Pregnancy

VIRGIN:
A virgin is a woman who has not experienced sexual intercourse.
Virgin term is derived from a latin word Virgo or Maiden, which means sexually inexperienced woman ( virgo intacta)

VIRGINITY
Virginity is the state of being Virgin.
Defloration
Latin Term – de:flore, flower and away: Rupture of hymen by sexual intercourse to the plucking of flower.
Defloration means loss of virginity
Marriage
It is a contract between man and woman which implies physical union by coitus.
Divorce
Divorce means dissolution of previously valid marriage
Chastity
It does not imply virginity
Chastity derived from a Latin word’ castitas meaning cleanliness or purity.
Hymenoplasty
It is an operation for repairing ruptured hymen. It will restore to its intact estate.
Hymenorrhaphy
• ‘Hymen’ is a Greek term meaning membrane and ‘Raphe’ means suturing:
• so, suturing of ruptured hymen is Hymenorrhaphy.
Hymenotomy
It is a surgical procedure to correct imperforate or septate Hymen.

 

CONCEPTS

The question of virginity arises in cases of-

1.Nullity of marriage:
• When either party was under age at the time of marriage
• One party was of unsoundmind or mental defective at the time of marriage
• Either party was already validly married,
• When female was pregnant by another man at the time of marriage or
• where has not been comummuted due to impotence or wilful refusal.

 

2.Divorce
The ground of the divorce are:
• Adultery,
• Incurable mental illness,
• Husband found guilty of rape,sodomy or bestality,
• Incurable leprosy
• Incurable venereal disease,
• deserted petitioners for two year continuously.
• Not heard for years and
• Divorce by mutual consent on the ground of living separately for one year or more

 

HYMEN
The Hymen is a fold of mucous membrane about 1mm thick, derived from the posterior vaginal wall, situated at the vaginal outlet.
Types of Hymen :
1.Annular Hymen: The opening is oval and situated near the centre of the membrane
2.Semilunar or Crescentic Hymen: It is commonest type of hymen in which the opening placed anteriorly.
3.Cribriform Hymen: There are several hymenal opening
4.Septate Hymen: Two lateral opening which is separated either partially or completely by a thin strip of tissue.
5.Vertical Hymen: The opening in the hymen is vertical.
6.Infantile Hymen: A small linear opening in the middle of hymen
7.Imperforate Hymen: No Hymenal opening present.
8.Fimbriated Hymen: This type of hymen is also called Frilly Edged Hymen’.

Causes of Rupture of Hymen
1.Act of coitus: Sexual inter course is the commonest cause of rupture of Hymen.
However in some cases Hymen remains intact inspite of Virgin, repeated sexual intercourse, such condition is called False
2.Accident: A fall on a projecting substance.
3.Foreign Body: Sola pith is introduced into vagina for rendering very young girl fit for sexual intercourse is called Aptae Virus.
4.Masturbation: Specially, if practiced with some large foreign body.
5.Surgical Procedure: Artificial maneuvers and gynecological examinations and introduction of instrument for medical examination.
6.SanitaryTampons: Insertion of sanitary tampon
7.Ulceration: Due to diphtheria and other diseases
8.Scratches: Due to irritation of parts the cause is lack of cleanliness.

Medico Legal Aspects
1.The presence of an intact Hymen is not an absolute sign of virginity. With an intact hymen there are true virgin or false virgin.
The principal signs of virginity are an intact Hymen, a normal condition of the fourchette and posterior commissure and a narrow vagina with rugosity of wall.
2. After repeated sexual intercourse, tears are present at 5’o clock and 7o’ clock position. After the birth of child Hymen is completely lost and small round flashy tags are formed called carunculae hymenales or ‘carunculae myrtiformes’.

 

PREGNANCY
Pregnancy is the carrying of one or more embryo or feotus inside the womb of a female.
The condition of having a developing embryo or feotus in the female occurs when an ovum is fertilized by a spermatozoon; in lay term it is called conception. The fused product of male and female gamete is called zygote. It occurs during reproductive period of female from 15 years to 45 years.
Although pregnancy begins with implantation, the process leading pregnancy occurs earlier as a result of female gamete or oocyte, merging with male gamete or spermatozoon.

Medico Legal Aspects
1.When a woman pleads pregnancy to avoid attendance in the court as a witness – Pregnancy itself is not an excuse, unless in advanced stage of pregnancy to the fact that delivery is imminent.
2.When a female sentenced to death penalty, pleads that she is pregnant to avoid execution. The High court has the to postpone the execution of death until 6 months after delivery or commute it to life imprisonment.
3.When a woman feigns pregnancy after her husband’s death to claim succession to estate.
4.When a woman, who had filed a suit in the court for breach of promise of marriage of seduction claims to be pregnant.
5.When a woman blackmails a man and accuses that she is pregnant by him to compel marriage.
6.In allegations that widow or an unmarried woman or a married woman living separately from her husband, is pregnant.
7.When a woman alleges that she is pregnant in order to secure greater compensation from some person dies through the negligence.
8.In case of divorce, the woman may claim to be pregnant to receive more alimony or maintenance /allowance.

Pre-Interview Written test for the post of Staff Nurse BPS-16 Health Department Government of Sindh.

Answer Key

Question Paper – 2015 (http://nursingipd.com/2022/04/02/1383/

1. A
2. B
3. C
4. A
5. C
6. A
7. C
8. B
9. C
10. B
11. A
12. C
13. B
14. D
15. C
16. D
17. B
18. A
19. B
20. C

21. B
22. C
23. D
24. C
25. D
26. C
27. C
28. C
29. D
30. A
31. B
32. D
33. D
34. D
35. C
36. B
37. D
38. A
39. A
40. C

41. D
42. C
43. C
44. A
45. A
46. D
47. B
48. C
49. B
50. C

51. D
52. B
53. D
54. C
55. D
56. A
57. D
58. B
59. D
60. B
61. A
62. B
63. D
64. B
65. A
66. B
67. D
68. C
69. A
70. B

71. D
72. B
73. A
74. B
75. B
76. B
77. B
78. B
79. A
80. C
81. B
82. C
83. D
84. B
85. C

86. D
87. C
88. B
89. C
90. B
91. B
92. C
93. B
94. B
95. C
96. B
97. B
98. A
99. D
100. C

For question paper, click on this link:

Pre-Interview Written test for the post of Staff Nurse BPS-16 Health Department Government of Sindh.

Pre-Interview Written test for the post of Staff Nurse BPS-16 Health Department Government of Sindh.

Tuesday 06th October 2015 Time: 01:00pm to 02:30pm Maximum Marks 100

QUESTION PAPER

1) Which One of the following drug may cause peptic ulcer:
(A) Aspirin (B) Paracetamol (C) Vitamin C (D) Doxycycline
2) Typhoid fever is caused by:
(A) E-Coli (B) Salmonella Typhi (C) Plasmodium (D) Parasite
3) Nursing Intervention for pre-operative preparation of patient are as follows, except:
(A) Decrease anxiety
(B) Assess patient to understand per and post-operative events
(C) Teach patient to perform deep breathing and leg exercises
(D) Propose appropriate surgical procedure
4) Improving Sanitation in a Village is:
(A) Primary prevention
(B) Primo Moto
(C) Secondary prevention
(D) Not a prevention measure
5) Mandatory test for Tuberculosis is
(A) X-ray chest
(B) Sputum for bacterium
(C) Tuberculosis test “D”
(D) Scan of chest
6) Edema is defined as excessive accumulation of:
(A) Interstiscial fluid
(B) Intravascular fluid
(C) Peritoneal fluid
(D) Lymphatic fluid
7) Collapse otherwise normal lung tissue is termed as
(A) Asthma
(B) Tuberculosis
(C) Atelectasis
(D) Pneumonia
8) Host is infected, but does not become functionally infection & thus does not transmit on to
(A) Obligate host
(B) Definitive host
(C) Intermediate host
(D) Dead and host
9) Stomatitis is inflammation of:
(A) Rectum
(B) Vagina
(C) Oral cavity
(D) Esophagus
10) Hypertension is most common due to
(A) Renal Disease
(B) cardiovascular disease
(C) Endocrinal cause
(D) Idiopathic

11) A lady is suffering from chronic renal failure, her blood will mostly lack in
(A) Erythrocytes
(B) Neutrophils
(C) Monocytes
(D) Lymphocytes
12) A baby boy is born after C section of three-kilogram weight with APGAR score is 9 out of 10 what you will take being on duty medical assistant:
(A) Cut the umbilical cord
(B) Suction of mouth and Nostrils
(C) Give to mother for breast feeding
(D) Give bath
13) The Ideal BMI of a person is:
(A) 14-19
(B) 20-25
(C) 26-29
(D) 30-35
14) The best position of a mother in first stage of labor is
(A) Lithotomy
(B) Supine
(C) Knee-chest
(D) Left lateral
15) Maximum score in Glasgow-coma scale is:
(A) 5
(B) 10
(C) 15
(D) 20
16) A patient is has come from Sukkur, is reported to have generalized aches, pain and rashes on palms and soles. The most likely diagnosis is:
(A) Scarlet fever
(B) Trypanosomiasis
(C) Malaria
(D) Dengue
17) Which one of the following is good cholesterol for consumption:
(A) LDL
(B) HDL
(C) VLDL
(D) Triglycerides
18) Following is true regarding chlorination, except:
(A) Contact period -30 minutes
(B) Free chlorine 0.5 mg/liter from one hour
(C) Water should not be turbid
(D) Chlorine demand should be estimated
19) The drug commonly used to manage the cardiac arrhythmias is:
(A) Ventolin (B) Digoxin (C) ceftriaxone (D) Metformin
20) Best indicator of air pollution is:
(A) Lead (B) Dust (C) carbon monoxide (D) Rust
21) Which of the following is not a function of nervous tissue:
(A) Conduction (B) Contraction (C) Integration (D) coordination
22) Which type of worm cause the iron deficiency anaemia:
(A) Thread worms (B) Round worms (C) Hook worms (D) Tape worms
23) All are soil mediated infections, except:
(A) Whipworm (B) Hook worms (C) Round Worms (D) Tape worms
24) Following are sign of labor, except:
(A) Painful uterine contraction
(B) Watery vaginal discharge
(C) Show
(D) Descend of fetal
25) The nursing management of cancer patient receiving chemotherapy include all, except:
(A) Prevention of infection
(B) Management of bleeding
(C) Patient education
(D) Change of chemotherapy
26) Leading cause of diarrheal disease in:
(A) Enterotoxgenic Escherichia Coli
(B) B. Salmonella (non-typhoid)
(C) Rota Virus
(D) D. Campylobacter
27) For diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, the sputum of AFB should be examined for:
(A) One day (B) Two days (C) Three days (D) Four days
28) The change occurring in the disease frequency over many years is called:
(A) Cyclical trend (B) Seasonal trend (C) Secular trend (D) None of these
29) HBV vaccine is given by the rout of:
(A) Subcutaneous (B) Intravenous (C) Intradermal (D) Intramuscular

30) Which of the following drug can only be given by intravenous rout:
(A) Calcium gluconate (B) Magnesium sulphate (C) Vitamin K (D) Vitamin D3
31) What is WHO recommended normal cholesterol level in human?
(A) 200 ml/dl (B) Below 200 ml/dl (C) Above 200 ml/dl (D) None of these
32) The blood which can be transfused without cross matching in patient which hemorrhagic shock,
(A) A Rh +ve (B) B Rh +ve (C) AB –ve (D) O Rh –ve
33) Which are the following is not a feature of Horner’s Syndrome
(A) Miosis (B) Ptosis (C) Hypohidrosis (D) Arthritis
34) The time from receiving the infection to the onset of infectiousness, i.e. the ability to transmit infection,
(A) Latency period (B) Window period (C) Infective period (D) Incubation period.
35) Following vitamins are absorbed from small intestine, except
(A) Vitamin A (B) Vitamin D (C) Vitamin C (D) Vitamin B 12
36) Sputum specimen in unconscious patient can be obtained by,
(A) Coughing (B) Postural drainage (C) tracheal aspiration (D) Aspiration syringe
37) In an outbreak of cholera in a village 2000 population, 20 cases have occurred and 5 died. Case fatality is:
(A) 1% (B) 5% (C) 10% (D) 25%
38) Saw tooth appearance in ECG shows:
(A) Atrial flutter (B) Atrial fibrillation (C) Heart block (D) Myocardial Infraction
39) Chicken pox is caused by:
(A) Herpes zoster (B) HPV (C) Rubella virus (D) Mumps
40) Pulmonary arty arises from
(A) Right atrium (B) Left atrium (C) Right Ventricle (D) Left ventricle
41) Following are complications of uncontrolled diabetes, except:
(A) Peripheral Neuropathy (B) Retinopathy (C) Microvascular Disease (D) Asthma
42) The minimum recommended dose of “free” residual chlorine in water for routine 3 chlorination,
(A) 10 mg/it after 1-hour contact
(B) 0.5 mg/it after ½ hour contact
(C) 0.5 mg/it after 1-hour contact
(D) 4 mg/it after ½ hour contact
43) Rickets is a disease caused by deficiency of,
(A) Vitamin A (B) Vitamin B complex (C) Calcium (D) Magnesium
44) Ground water has the following advantages, except:
(A) Likely to be free from pathogenic organism
(B) Usually required no treatment
(C) Supply is likely to be certain during dry season
(D) Likely pour
45) AIDS is a disease caused by:
(A) Virus (B) Bacteria (C) Fungi (D) Parasite
46) In which of the following congenital hyperbilirubinemia syndrome phenobarbital is indicated,
(A) Gilbert’s (B) Crigler Najjar (C) Dubbin Johnson (D) Rotor
47) The common type of anemia in pregnancy is,
(A) Megaloblastic (B) Iron Deficiency (C) Haemolytic (D) Aplastic
48) Fever is terms as high grade if it is :
(A) < 98° F (B) > 98° F (C) > 100 °F (D) > 104°F
49) Mumps is disease caused by:
(A) Thyroid gland (B) Parotid gland (C) Pituitary gland (D) parathyroid gland
50) Patient is in recovery room after surgery. The most important initial nursing intervention is:
(A) Check wound (B) Check urinary output (C) Check Vitals (D) Check skin color

51) Bluish discoloration of skin is called:
(A) Anemia (B) Jaundice (C) Dehydration (D) Cyanosis
52) Blood complete picture shows microcytic hypochromic anemia, that may be due to deficiency of:
(A) Folic Acid (B) Iron (C) Vitamin B12 (D) Iodine
53) The last system during fetal life to mature is:
(A) Cardiovascular system (B) Genitourinary system
(C) Respiratory system (D) Nervous system
54) If a patient develops reaction due to incompatibility of blood the early nursing intervention should be:
(A)Administer adrenaline (B) Give oxygen by mask
(C) Stop administration of blood (D) Administer atropine
55) Thyroxin is secreted from:
(A) Pituitary gland (B) Hypothalamus (C) Parathyroid gland (D) Thyroid gland
56) Beta blocker are contraindicated in management of hypertension in association with:
(A) Myocardial Infraction (B) Asthma (C) Diabetes (D) peptic ulcer
57) A person required blood transfusion after road accident, which of the following blood can’t be transfused to patient. His own blood group is A positive.
(A) A negative (B) O positive (C) O negative (D) AB positive
58) Enteral feeding is feeding through:
(A) Stomach tube (B) Nasogastric tube (C) Intravenous route (D) Oral route
59) In which condition breastfeeding is contraindicated in infant:
(A) Diabetes (B) Hepatitis (C) Diarrhea (D) Active Tuberculosis
60) Nursing care in gastroscopy include all, except:
(A) Explanation of procedure
(B) No fluid is given for 4 to 6 hours before surgery
(C) Antibiotic is administered ½ hour before surgery
(D) Dentures and jewellery is removed
61) The ability of a microorganism to produce disease in a shorter period of time with a very low dose even
(A) Pathogenicity (B) Virulence (C) Infectivity (D) None of these
62) The Common cause of vertigo, except:
(A) Meniere’s disease (B) Labyrinthitis (C) Acoustic neurons (D) Mastoiditis
63) Influenza pandemic occurs after every 7-10 years. This kind of disease distribution in time is known as:
(A) Secular (B) Short time fluctuation (C) Cyclical trend (D) Seasonal trend
64) Oxytocin is secreted by:
(A) Anterior pituitary (B) Posterior pituitary (C) Thyroid (D) Hypothalamus
65) Soma is part of:
(A) Neuron (B) Muscle fiber (C) Connectivity tissue (D)Epithelial tissue
66) Impersonal health care includes all, except:
(A) Mental and child health (B) Water supply
(C) School health (D) Occupational health
67) The integrity, principles, ethics, meaning and purpose in life, are said to be
(A) Physical dimension (B) Mental dimension
(C) Emotional dimension (D) Spiritual dimension
68) Diabetes mellitus is caused by deficiency of,
(A) Thyroxin (B) Calcitonin (C) Insulin (D) Spleen
69) Vesicovaginal fistula abnormal communication between,
(A) Bladder and vagina (B) Urethra and vagina
(C) Rectum and vagina (D) Ureter and vagina
70) Disinfection of living tissue is called:
(A) Sepsis (B) Antisepsis (C) Antibiotic (D) Bacterial

71) All are early manifestation of shock, except:
(A) Decrease in blood pressure (B) Rapid weak pulse
(C) Moist cold skin (D) Decreased Urination
72) Which of the following is not a fat soluble vitamin,
(A) Vitamin A (B) Vitamin C (C) Vitamin D (D) Vitamin E
73) Prevention of the emergence or development of risk factors in countries or Population group is not yet an appeared is known as:
(A) Primordial
(B) Primary prevention
(C) Secondary prevention
(D) Tertiary prevention
74) Purest water in nature is from
(A) Lakes (B) Rain (C) Spring (D) wales
75) Appendicitis is suspected from the blood complete picture showing raised,
(A) Neutrophils (B) Eosinophils (C) Basophils (D) Lymphocytes
76) P 5 stand for:
(A) Mountainous peak Nanga Parbat
(B) 5 permanent members of UN security
(C) A cruise missile
(D) Election manifesto of PPP
77) Who Coined the word Pakistan?
(A) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan
(B) Chaudhry Rehmat Ali
(C) Maulvi Fazalhaq
(D) Allama Iqbal
78) The first president of Pakistan under 1973 constitution was:
(A) Z. A. Bhutto (B) Chaudry fazal Illahi (C) Ghulam Ishaq khan (D) Farooq Laghari
79) A short history of Saracen’s is a famous book by Syed Amir Ali. What is the meaning of Saracen’s
(A) People of the east (B) Ethiopians (C) Umayyad (D) Fatimid
80) Hassan Ali Effendi established Sindh Muhammadan Association on the advice of:
(A) Quaid-e-Azam (B) G.M. Bhurgri (C) Justice Syed Ameer Ali (D) Mualana Ubaid

81) Theory of Relativity was first presented by:
(A) Max Planck (B) Albert Einstein (C) Shankar Acharya (D) Socrates
82) Constitutional history of India begins with:
(A) Arab rule (B) Mughal rule (C) Act of 1935 (D) Independence Act of India
83) Largest desert of the world is:
(A) Australian (B) Arabian (C) Gobi (D) Sahara
84) “Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam” is a modern classic written by:
(A) Abu Kalam Azad (B) Allama Iqbal (C) Dr. Zakir Hussain (D) Abdullah Yousef
85) Millennium Development Goals (MDG) set by UN ought to be achieved by the year:
(A) 2013 (B) 2014 (C) 2015 (D) 2016
86) The first man on the moon was an American astronaut in 1969, his name was:
(A) Michael Collins (B) Edwin Buzz Aldrin (C) Stephen King (D) Neil Armstrong
87) Edward Snowden worked for US secret service and now calls himself a “whistleblower”. They called him,
(A) A rogue employee
(B) An informer who listen to his conscience
(C) A Spy
(D) Govt. Employee
88) The Simla delegation called on Lord Minto, the Viceroy of India, in October 1906, the delegation Led by:
(A) (A) M.R. Ghandi (B) Sir Agha Khan (C) Allama Iqbal (D) Sir Saleem ullah Khan
89) Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai’s ‘Risalo’ was first published by Dr. Ernest Trump From:
(A) Paris (B) London (C) Leipzig (D) Bombay
90) Who is the author of great English epic “Paradise Lost”?
(A) Shakespeare (B) Milton (C) Wordsworth (D) Tennyson
91) In 1847 the province of Sindh was divided in how many collectorates?
(A) Five (B) Three (C) Four (D) Six
92) Sindh became a separate province after 1935 Act of India and was separated from Bombay Presidency from the year?
(A) 1935 (B) 1937 (C) 1936 (D) 1939
93) Gomal Zam Dam was inaugurated in 2013 at:
(A) North Waziristan (B) South Waziristan (C) Upper Dir (D) Skardu
94) After the abolition of One unite scheme, in which year Sindh regained the provincial status?
(A) 1969 (B) 1970 (C) 1973 (D) 1968
95) RADAR was invented in 1935 as a way of locating enemy aircraft. Its inventor was:
(A) Frank Morris (B) Mortimer Wheeler (C) Robert Watson-Watt (D) James Martin
96) Grammar can be defined as:
(A) Art of politics
(B) Rules to combine works into larger unite of language
(C) Science of oratory
(D) Composing poetry
97) “In Black and White” Means:
(A) A movie in two colours (B) In writing (C) Without doubt (D) On the spot
98) “A rolling stone” means?
(A) A person who does not stay at one place
(B) A Criminal (C) A jester (D) An Actor
99) The vast alluvial plains laying between the western banks of Manchar lake and Kirthar range is?
(A) Kachu (B) Kohistan (C) Kaachho (D) Indus Delta
100) After the conquest of Sindh in 1843 the first British Governor of Sindh was:
(A) Sir John Jacob (B) Sir Charles Napier (C) Bartle Frere (D) Richard Burton

For answer key, click on below link: 

Pre-Interview Written test for the post of Staff Nurse BPS-16 Health Department Government of Sindh.