Category Archives: Sociology

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

A) EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS:

The educational institutions play significant role in the development of a country the moulds the attitude and behaviour of the individual in a certain name in a particular situation.

B) TYPES OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS:

  1. Formal Education.
  2. Informal Education.
  3. General Education.
  4. Technical Education.
  5. Conventional Education.
  6. Person-Centred Education.
  7. Progressive Education.
  8. Conservative Education.
  9. Prejudiced Education.
  10. Liberal Education.
  11. Religious Education.
  12. Secular Education.
  13. Moral Education.
  14. Scientific Education.
  15. Formal Education: In this an individual receives education in class room E.g. Education in School, College etc…
  16. Informal Education: In this an individual receives education from out side the class room. It starts from the time a baby in born and continues as long as he lives.
  17. General Education: In this type a person receives education as a routine. It is divided into following categories.1) Primary School. 2) Middle School. 3) High School. 4) College.
  18. Technical Education: It is given to an individual to train him in specific field.1. School of Nursing.2. Medical College.3. Technical College.
  19. Conventional Education: It is known as traditional education or indoctrination. Indoctrination means forcing a special idea, belief or mode of learning upon individuals and giving them no opportunity to consider any other point of view.It is rigid form of education in which importance is given to indirect way.
  20. Person-Centred Education: In this type the whole person is given importance i.e. the feelings, passion and intellect.
  21. Progressive Education: It is also known as emulative education. It is a competitive type of education in which an individual have freedom to compete. This education shows rapid progress or reform. It is flexible because it welcomes change.
  22. Conservative Education: In this type, values are preserved.
  23. Prejudiced Education: In this, educations are very staunch and are not open-minded to accept new ideas. It may be called an extremist group.
  24. Liberal Education: It is also called democratic education. It is flexible and more open. It is ready to accept new ideas.
  25. Religious Education: It is a belief-oriented education which is compulsory for each and every individual. It stays within the limits of religious beliefs.
  26. Secular Education: It is an education with in sight focusing our reality with no consideration for any religion.
  27. Moral Education: It is also known as ethical education it safeguards the principles of humanity and produces ideal human being.
  28. Scientific Education: It is based on empiricism. In this type, an individual produces a theory and also prove into application.

C) FUNCTIONS OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS:

Two types of functions:

  1. Manifest Function.
  2. Latent Function.
  3. MANIFEST FUNCTION:

Some of the important Manifest Functions are as follow:

  1. To provide education
  2. To provide religious instruction and guidance.
  3. To teach discipline.
  4. To regulate morals.
  5. To provide recreation.
  6. To regulate social welfare activities.
  7. LATENT FUNCTION:

They help in bringing social control and orderly life in a society.

D) PROBLEMS OF EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN:

In Pakistan, the basic problem regarding education is that, people don’t have the sense to get good education.
In Pakistan, the most of population about 80% of people live in villages and majority are uneducated. This backwardness creates problems and people find difficult to solve them.
The following are the major problems of educational system:

  1. Inadequate educational system.
  2. Children’s are absent with lots of problems.
  3. Ununiform system of education.
  4. Poor standard of education.
  5. Ineffective education system.
  6. Waste of educational resources.

ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS

A) ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS:

It is a set of norms relating to production & distinction of goods and services. The economy means the dominant form of economic activity present in a society e.g.

  1. Collecting and hunting economy.
  2. Nomadic –post oral economy.
  3. Settled agricultural economy.
  4. Modern urban industrial economy.

a) CAPITALISM: It is an economic system in which the property of economic institution is owned and controlled by individuals.

b) SOCIALISM: It is an economic system in which the property of economics institutions is owned and controlled by the state.

B) STRUCTURE OF ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS:

  1. ECONOMIC SYSTEM: An economic system of every society based on ideology by which control and are of capital goods and services is achieved.
  2. DIVISION OF LABOR: Division of labour has made the economic activities of the individual most efficient, organized and effective.
  3. COMPETITION: The economic structure based on competition provides formal and informal norms for production and distribution of goods and services.
  4. ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION: In a society, there are different economic organizations which give different roles and status two its members e.g. trusts partnership etc…
  5. ECHNOLOGY: Technology in every field of economy is introduced all over the world.

C) FUNCTIONS OF ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS:

  1. To regulate and control the capital goods and services in a society.
  2. To satisfy human needs.
  3. They play important role in socialization.
  4. Its play role in social satisfaction.
  5. It provides priority to the individual belonging to a higher economic status.
  6. To provide specialization in process of production and distribution.
  7. To provide power and authority to their owners.
  8. They higher economic status is closely associated with greater political hold in society.

D) ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS IN AGRICULTURE:

Some Important Economic Institutions in Agriculture are as follows:

  1. Agricultural farming.
  2. Chemical fertilizer.
  3. Irrigation system.
  4. Harvesting of crops by labour.
  5. Land tenure system.
  6. Agricultural department.
  7. Agricultural sale depots, flour mills.

E) ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS IN INDUSTRY & TECHNOLOGY:

Some Important Economic Institutions in Industry & Technology are as follows:

  1. Textile industries.
  2. Pharmaceutical industries.
  3. Shoes industries.
  4. Electronic industries.
  5. Mechanical industries.
  6. Transport vehicles industries.
  7. Big shops markets etc…
  8. Banks.

 

ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS

A) ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS:

It is a set of norms relating to production & distinction of goods and services. The economy means the dominant form of economic activity present in a society e.g.

  1. Collecting and hunting economy.
  2. Nomadic –post oral economy.
  3. Settled agricultural economy.
  4. Modern urban industrial economy.

a) CAPITALISM: It is an economic system in which the property of economic institution is owned and controlled by individuals.

b) SOCIALISM: It is an economic system in which the property of economics institutions is owned and controlled by the state.

B) STRUCTURE OF ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS:

  1. ECONOMIC SYSTEM: An economic system of every society based on ideology by which control and are of capital goods and services is achieved.
  2. DIVISION OF LABOR: Division of labour has made the economic activities of the individual most efficient, organized and effective.
  3. COMPETITION: The economic structure based on competition provides formal and informal norms for production and distribution of goods and services.
  4. ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION: In a society, there are different economic organizations which give different roles and status two its members e.g. trusts partnership etc…
  5. ECHNOLOGY: Technology in every field of economy is introduced all over the world.

C) FUNCTIONS OF ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS:

  1. To regulate and control the capital goods and services in a society.
  2. To satisfy human needs.
  3. They play important role in socialization.
  4. Its play role in social satisfaction.
  5. It provides priority to the individual belonging to a higher economic status.
  6. To provide specialization in process of production and distribution.
  7. To provide power and authority to their owners.
  8. They higher economic status is closely associated with greater political hold in society.

D) ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS IN AGRICULTURE:

Some Important Economic Institutions in Agriculture are as follows:

  1. Agricultural farming.
  2. Chemical fertilizer.
  3. Irrigation system.
  4. Harvesting of crops by labour.
  5. Land tenure system.
  6. Agricultural department.
  7. Agricultural sale depots, flour mills.

E) ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS IN INDUSTRY & TECHNOLOGY:

Some Important Economic Institutions in Industry & Technology are as follows:

  1. Textile industries.
  2. Pharmaceutical industries.
  3. Shoes industries.
  4. Electronic industries.
  5. Mechanical industries.
  6. Transport vehicles industries.
  7. Big shops markets etc…
  8. Banks.

 

DIVORCE

A) DIVORCE:

  1. Divorce is a legal dissolution totally or partially of a marriage by a court or any other competent authority.
  2. Separations of husband and wife are called divorce.

B) CAUSES OF DIVORCE:
The following are the causes of divorce:

  1. TRADITIONAL FACTORS ON OUR SOCIETY:
  2. The Impact of Collective Unconscious: The past history of an individual can lead to the divorce.
  3. Male DominationMale are dominate in our society and this negative attitude has broadened gulf between man and woman.
  4. Control of Marriage Contract: Now in our society a woman can also have right to get divorce on spatial grounds.
  5. Abrupt Changes in Old Traditions: Any Abrupt changes in tradition can lead to the shaking of calm way of life.
  6. INTER-FAMILY FACTORS:
  7. Marriage without Willingness of the Partners: Any marriage without willingness of either partner can lead to misunderstanding between husband and wife and end up in divorce.
  8. Reciprocal Marriage: Marriage arranged on reciprocal women is above the factor of divorce in our society.
  9. Family Feuds: Family feuds can make dissatisfaction among the two leading to divorce.
  10. Interference by In-Laws: Too much interference of in-laws leads to frustration among husband and wife.
  11. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS:
  12. Economic Insufficiency: Unsound economic condition of the family can lead to separation or divorce.
  13. Job Insecurity: Unemployment or irregular employment may result in financial problem and can be a cause of divorce.
  14. Poor Housing Condition: Failure of the husband to provide responsible home can also lead to divorce.
  15. Lake of Recreation Facilities: Lake of recreation facilities can also lead to divorce.
  16. Changed Economic Role of Woman: Now a day’s women are doing profitable jobs and they are no longer dependent on males. This factor can also be a cause of divorce.
  17. PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS:
  18. Selfish Partner: If any of the partner is self-centered, and do not think of other may lead to divorce doubts and fears ultimately divorce.
  19. Short-Tempered & Emotionally Disturbed Partner: May result in frequent quarrels which may result to divorce.
  20. Narrow-Minded Partner: Any of the partners who are narrow-minded are suspicious which result in breaking of trust and love and result in divorce.
  21. Insincere Partner: Any type of Insincerity and doubt between the two can dissolve their marriage.
  22. Habitual Addiction: Any type of drug addiction can result in divorce.
  23. PERSONALITY DIFFERENCE:
  24. Difference in Education: Any lag in education of either partner may result in divorce.
  25. Emotional in Incompatibility: Temperamental differences or emotional incompatibility may result in divorce.
  26. Difference in Socio-Economic Status: The greater is the difference of status between the families of husband and wife is also the cause of divorce.
  27. Difference in Religious Belief: Any religious deviancies from either side may be result of divorce.

C) EFECTS OF DIVORCE:

  1. Divorced parents ignore their children.
  2. Divorced parent’s children became selfish and develop psychological problems.
  3. The children of divorced parents may develop sense of insecurity and negative thinking leading to disruptive behaviour.
  4. Children develop inferiority complex.
  5. Children may become destructive in nature.

 

CULTURE

A) CULTURE:

A culture is a sum of total learned behaviour, traits, values, belief, language, laws and technology, characteristics of the member of a particular society.Culture is the cultivated behaviour i.e. the totality of mans learned experience, socially transmitted to one generation to another.Culture is a behaviour acquired through social learning.

B) ELEMENTS OF CULTURE:

The followings are the elements of culture:

  1. Cultural trait.
  2. Cultural complex.
  3. Cultural pattern.
  4. Cultural theme.
  5. Cultural configuration.
  6. Cultural ethos.

1) CULTURAL TRAIT:

It is the simplest unit of the culture and it may be material or non material. Some examples of material culture traits are:

  1. A Nail.
  2. A Handkerchief.
  3. A Safety pin.

Some examples of non-material culture traits are:

  1. Making bed.
  2. Eating with right hand.
  3. Milking a cow.
  4. Driving to the left.
  5. Knowledge of an important drug.

2) CULTURAL COMPLEX:

When two or more cultural traits are organized together is called cultural complex E.g.

  1. Television.
  2. A watch.
  3. A political party as a Muslim league.

3) CULTURAL PATTERN:

When two or more cultural complexes are combined, they form a cultural pattern .E.g. some kind of behaviour is accepted from a person of particular age, category, sex etc…

4) CULTURAL THEME:

The combinations of two or more cultural pattern result in a cultural theme E.g. all human being are equal.

5) CULTURAL CONFIGURATION:

When two or more cultural themes are integrated, the product is known as cultural configuration E.g. Marriage system.

6) CULTURAL ETHOS:

Cultural ethos is the central point of culture. E.g. Pakistan culture is religious.

C) TYPE OF CULTURE:

  1. Material.
  2. Non-material.
  3. Ideal.
  4. Real.
  5. Simple.
  6. Complex.
  7. Organic.
  8. Inorganic.
  9. Super organic.
  10. Sub-culture.
  11. Organization.

1) MATERIAL:

It is the type of culture related to physical objects E.g. Tools, machinery, books etc.

2) NON-MATERIAL:

It is type of culture related to those things which are can not observe E.g. tradition, customs, writing, language etc.

3) IDEAL:

It is presented as a pattern to the people and it is seen or written in books and speeches.

4) REAL:

It is presented by the people in their social life. E.g. cheating and stealing are commonly seen in our society.

5) SIMPLE:

It is based on non industrial social life. E.g., culture in our rural areas.

6) COMPLEX:

In this type education, technology, and industry are in their progressive stage E.g. Western culture.

7) ORGANIC:

It includes the study of biological science E.g. Zoology, Botany.

8 ) INORGANIC:

It includes the study of physical science E.g. Physics, Chemistry etc.

9) SUPER ORGANIC:

It includes the study of social sciences E.g. Sociology.

10) SUB-CULTURAL:

It is a culture of a group of people in society and such people have one or more cultural traits common in their pattern of life. E.g. Sindhi. Punjabi, Blochi, are sub-culture in Pakistan.

11) ORGANIZATION:

It is a common conception shared by the member of an organization.Characteristics in the Organization:

  1. Individual.
  2. Autonomy.
  3. Structure.
  4. Reward.
  5. Consideration.
  6. Conflict.

 

COMMUNITY

A) Definitions:

  1. It may be defined as a larger group of individual living together from a long time in a locality having common interest goals and way of life.
  2. It is an aggregate of mutually related individual in a given location.
  3. There are two conditions for a group to be a community.
  4. The group of members lives together territory.
  5. They fulfill the needs of there life.

B) Examples of community:

  1. Village.
  2. Chak
  3. Mohallah.
  4. Basti.
  5. Tribe.  

c) Difference Between Community And Society 

SR. NO# COMMUNITY SOCIETY
Smaller group of people. Large group of people
People have close interaction. People have no close interaction
People have sentiments with one another and towards locality. People have no sentiments with one another and towards locality.
There is sense of belonging to one another. There is no feeling of belonging.
Social life people are influenced. By local culture. Social lives of people are influenced by general culture
The number of institution are limited The numbers of institution are unlimited.
Co-operations with one another is more effective. Co-operations with one another are less effective.


There are two type of community:

  1. Rural.
  2. Urban.

d) DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RURAL & URBAN COMMUNITY

SR. NO# RURAL URBAN
1 Number of professions is limited. Number of professions is un-limited.
2 Sparsely populated. Thickly populated.
3 Informal relations. Formal relations.
4 Rate of social mobility is lower. Rate of social mobility is high.
5 Social life is simple. Social life is complex.
6 Economy depends upon agriculture. Economy depends upon different profession and business activities.
7 Means are communications are very slow. Means are communications are very fast.
8 No modern facilities. Modern facilities are present.
9 There is endogamy. Exogamy is present.
10 Culture life is influenced. Culture life is less influenced.
11 Peoples are superstitious. Peoples are less superstitious.