Pakistan Study BCQs/MCQs BScN

1. During khilafat movement an excited mob set fire to a police station at chauri chaura village where about 22 policemen burnt alive in:
a. February 1922
b. February 1923
c. February 1920
d. February 1921
e. February 1924
2. Who presented the resolution for the formation of All India Muslim League:
a. Nawab Salimullah Khan
b. M. Ali Johar
c. Waqar-ul-Mulk
d. Mohsin-ul-Mulk
e. Sir Agha Khan
3. Which of the following was commonly known as the ’Father of idea of Pakistan’?
a. Sir Muhammad Shafi
b. Choudhary Rehmat Ali
c. M A Jinnah
d. Allama Iqbal
4. When India cut off Pakistan’s water supply without notice?
a. June 1948
b. April 1949
c. May 1948
d. May 1949
e. April 1948
5. Mahmood Ghaznavi who ruled Ghani from 997-1030 A.D. raided India for:
a. 17 times
b. 15 times
c. 16 times
d. 19 times
e. 18 times
6. Historical wars of Paniput are very famous ; this battle field is located in Indian Punjab. How many major wars were fought in this field?
a. Five
b. Six
c. Four
d. Three
e. Two
7. The 3rd June plan was announced on 3rd June by:
a. Lord Mounbatten
b. Jawahar Lal Nehru
c. Loord Wavell
d. Moti Lal Nehru
e. M.A. Jinnah
8. Quaid-e-Azam inaugurated the State Bank of Pakistan on:
a. 14th August, 1948
b. 1st July, 1949
c. 14th July, 1948
d. 1st July, 1948
e. 1st June, 1948
9. Who was the chairman of two boundary commissions between India and Pakistan?
a. Sir Cyril Radcliff
b. Tej sinjh
c. Muhammad Muneer
d. Din Muhammad
e. Mehar Chand
10. Name the Viceroy of India who made an offer in August 1940, on the behalf of British Government to Indian people:
a. Lord Wavel
b. Lord Mount Batten
c. Lord Irwin
d. Lord Linlithgow
e. Lord Hardinge
11. Who was appointed as the caretaker prime minister of Pakistan after the first dismissal of Benazeer Bhutto:
a. Aftab Ahmed Sherpao
b. Muhammad Khan Junejo
c. Moen Qureshi
d. Meraj Khalid
e. Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi
12. The Muslims of Sub-continent launched the Khilafat movement in the year of:
a. 1918
b. 1919
c. 1916
d. 1917
e. 1920
13. Which of the following was the first Muslim of India who placed Two Nation Theory?
a. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan
b. Sir Agha Khan
c. M. Ali Jinnah
d. M. Ali Johar
e. Sir Muhammad Shafi
14. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah joined All India Muslim League in the year of:
a. 1913
b. 1915
c. 1914
d. 1912
e. 1916
15. All India Muslim League was established in:
a. September 1905
b. December 1906
c. September 1906
d. December 1907
e. December 1905
16. The Mughal emperor who promulgated a new faith entitled Din-e-Elahi in 1581 A.D. was:
a. Akber
b. Jahangir
c. Humayun
d. Baber
e. Aurangzeb
17. Who was the first prime minister of Pakistan?
a. Kwaja Nazim-ud-din
b. M. Ali Jinnah
c. Liaquat Ali Khan
d. Muhammad Ali Bogra
e. Nur-ul-Amin
18. The Muslim Deputation met the Viceroy Minto in 1906 at:
a. Bombay
b. Delhi
c. Simla
d. Calcutta
e. Lahore
19. Who was the founder of Mughal dynasty?
a. Sher Shah
b. Humayun
c. Akber
d. Jahangir
e. Zaheer-ud-din Baber
20. In 712 A.D a Muslim expedition to conquer Sindh was sent by Hajjaj Bin Yousuf who was:
a. Governer of Iraq
b. Governer of Makran
c. Emperor of Egypt
d. King of Persia
e. Governer of Syria
21. The Simla Deputation led by Agha Khan was consisted of:
a. 25 members
b. 35 members
c. 30 members
d. 32 members
e. 40 members
22. When 3rd Martial law was imposed?
a. 5th July, 1980
b. 5th July, 1978
c. 5th July, 1976
d. 5th July, 1979
e. 5th July, 1977
23. Who coined the name Pakistan?
a. Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar
b. Choudhary Khaliq-uz-zama
c. M,A. Jinnah
d. Choudhary Rehmat Ali
e. Allama Iqbal
24. Select correct chronological order:
a. Akber, Shah Jahan, Humayun, Jahangir
b. Shah Jahan, Jahangir, Akber, Humayun
c. Akber, Humayun, Jahangir, Shah Jahan
d. Jahangir, Shah Jahan, Humayun, Akber
e. Humayun, Akber, Jahangir, Shah Jahan
25. On 23rd March, 1940, the famous resolution which came to be known as Pakistan Resolution was moved by:
a. Choudhary Khaliq-uz-zama
b. Moulvi Fazal-ul-Haq
c. Sardar Auranzeb
d. Moulana Zafar Ali Khan
e. M.Ali Johar
26. Sindh Provincial Muslim League Conference was held at Karachi and passed a resolution adopting Two-Nation Theory on:
a. 10th October, 1938
b. 10th October, 1941
c. 10th October, 1937
d. 10th October, 1939
e. 10th October, 1940
27. The British Government appointed Simon Commission for the recommendation for the new constitution in the year of:
a. 1928
b. 1926
c. 1927
d. 1930
e. 1929
28. The largest political forum of the Islamic countries in the world is:
a. NAM
b. Gulf Countries
c. OIC
d. ECO
e. Arab League
29. With the resignation of Congress Ministries, the Quaid-e-Azam appealed to the people to observe Day of Deliverance on:
a. 22 December, 1938
b. 22 January, 1940
c. 22 January, 1939
d. 22 December, 1939
e. 22 December, 1940
30. Under the Vidya Mandir scheme, the students were asked to pay respect and homage to Gandhi’s picture every day in their assemblies in the schools. The author of this scheme was.
a. Gandhi
b. Imam Ali
c. Zakir Hussain
d. Nehru
e. Dr. Abdul Kalam
31. Name the historians who visited India in 1001 A.D. gave earliest account of distinction between the Hindus and Muslims:
a. Mahmood Ghaznavi
b. Al-Beruni
c. Subuktigin
d. Shahabuddin
e. Alptigin
32. The Indian National Congress passed the ‘Quit India Resolution’ in Bombay on:
a. 30th August, 1942
b. 31st August, 1942
c. 28th August, 1942
d. 18th August, 1942
e. 8th August, 1942
33. Where Quaid-e-Azam taken to in the last months of his life:
a. Ziarat
b. Muree
c. Rawalpindi
d. Quetta
e. Lahore
34. India exploded five nuclear tests on 11th and 13th May 1998. Pakistan replied with atomic explosions on:
a. 27th May, 1998
b. 28th May, 1998
c. 26th May, 1998
d. 25th May, 1998
e. 24th May, 1998
35. The Quran and Sunnah declared as the supreme law of Pakistan in________ of constitution of 1973.
a. 9th amendment
b. 10th amendment
c. 7th amendment
d. 8th amendment
e. 11th amendment
36. Kashmir is located in the ¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬________ of Pakistan.
a. East
b. North East
c. North
d. West
e. South
37. When East Pakistan separated from Pakistan?
a. 8th December, 1971
b. 18th December, 1971
c. 10th December, 1971
d. 16th December, 1971
e. 20th December, 1971
38. The famous Congress-League Scheme was signed in Lucknow in the year of:
a. 1916
b. 1912
c. 1914
d. 1919
e. 1918
39. Which significant step of Bhutto Government in 1974 was a great satisfaction for religious parties?
a. Qadianis were declared as non-Muslims
b. Friday was declared weekly holiday
c. Pakistan was declared Islamic state
d. Separate Electorate were announced

Answer key:
1. A
2. A
3. B
4. E
5. A
6. D
7. A
8. D
9. A
10. D
11. E
12. B
13. A
14. A
15. B
16. A
17. C
18. C
19. E
20. A
21. B
22. E
23. D
24. E
25. B
26. A
27. C
28. C
29. D
30. C
31. B
32. E
33. A
34. B
35. A
36. C
37. D
38. A
39. A

Question and Answers about Monkeypox.

What is monkeypox?

The monkeypox virus causes the disease monkeypox. It is a zoonotic viral illness, which means it may pass from animals to people. It may also transmit from humans to humans and from people to the environment.

What are the symptoms of monkeypox?

Monkeypox can produce a variety of symptoms. While some individuals experience milder symptoms, others may develop more serious illnesses and need hospitalisation. Pregnant women, children, and anyone with impaired immune systems are at a greater risk.

During the 2022 epidemic, the most frequent symptoms of monkeypox were fever, headache, muscular pains, back pain, poor energy, and enlarged lymph nodes, followed or accompanied by the formation of a rash that might last two to three weeks. The rash might appear on the face, palms of hands, soles of feet, groyne, genital, and/or anal areas. It may also be discovered in the mouth, throat, anus, or vagina, as well as on the eyes. The number of sores might vary between one and thousands. Sores on the skin begin flat, then fill with fluids before crusting over, drying up, and falling off, leaving a new layer of skin behind.

There are continuing research to monitor and better understand symptoms during this new epidemic, such as which regions of the body may be impacted and how long symptoms may remain.

Anyone experiencing symptoms of monkeypox or who has had contact with someone who has monkeypox should contact or see a health care practitioner for help.

Symptoms normally resolve on their own or with supportive treatment, such as pain or fever medicine. People are contagious until all lesions have crusted over, scabs have dropped off, and a new layer of skin has developed underneath.

Can people get seriously ill or die from monkeypox?

Most people with monkeypox get better on their own after a few weeks. But for some people, an illness can cause health problems or even death. From what we know about past monkeypox cases, we know that newborn babies, children, and people with weakened immune systems may be more likely to have more severe symptoms or even die from monkeypox.

Monkeypox can lead to complications like secondary skin infections, asthma, confusion, and problems with the eyes. Some newer problems are proctitis, which is painful spots and growth inside the rectum, and pain or trouble peeing. People with monkeypox have died between 1% and 10% of the time in the past. It’s important to remember that death rates can be different in different places because of things like how easy it is to get health care. Because monitoring for monkeypox hasn’t been very good in the past, these numbers may be too high.


Some deaths have been reported in the new countries where the latest outbreak is taking place. This shows how important monkeypox is and how people should keep doing everything they can to protect themselves and others.

How is monkeypox transmitted from person to person?

Close contact with someone who has a monkeypox rash distributes the disease from person to person. Face-to-face contact (such as talking, breathing, or singing close to one another, which can generate droplets or short-range aerosols); skin-to-skin contact (such as touching or vaginal/anal sex); mouth-to-mouth contact (such as kissing); or mouth-to-skin contact (such as oral sex or kissing the skin) are all examples of close contact. The processes of monkeypox transmission via the air are not fully known, and research is being conducted to understand more.

We are still learning how long people with monkeypox are infectious, but they are generally considered infectious until all of their sores have crusted over, the scabs have fallen off and a new layer of skin has formed beneath, and all sores on the eyes and in the body (in the mouth, throat, eyes, vagina, and anus) have healed as well.

When an infected individual touches clothes, bedding, towels, items, devices, or surfaces, the environment might become contaminated with the monkeypox virus. If anybody else touches these goods and has any scrapes or abrasions, or if they accidently contact their eyes, nose, mouth, or other mucous membranes, they may get infected. This is referred to as fomite transmission. Cleaning your hands after contacting potentially infected things may help avoid this form of transfer. Infection may also occur via inhaling skin flakes or viruses from clothes, beds, or towels. Experts are still attempting to figure out if this mechanism of transmission is important in the current epidemic.

The virus may also be transmitted to the foetus during pregnancy, during or after delivery by skin-to-skin contact, or from a parent infected with monkeypox to an infant or kid through intimate contact.

Although asymptomatic infection has been documented, it is unclear if persons who are asymptomatic may transmit the illness or whether the disease can spread via other body fluids. Although a live monkeypox virus has been isolated from sperm, it is unknown if infection may transmit through sperm, vaginal fluids, prenatal fluids, lactation, or blood. More research is being conducted to determine whether or not persons may transmit monkeypox via the sharing of these fluids during and after symptomatic illness.


How is monkeypox transmitted from animals to humans?

Monkeypox can be transmitted to humans through physical contact with an infected animal, such as a non-human primate, terrestrial rodent, antelope, gazelle, or tree squirrel, such as through bites or scratches, or through activities such as hunting, skinning, trapping, cooking, or playing with carcasses. The virus may also be acquired by consuming contaminated animals that have not been completely cooked. Avoiding unprotected contact with wild animals, particularly those that are ill or dead (including their flesh and blood), may lower the chance of contracting monkeypox from them. Any items including animal parts or meat should be fully prepared before consuming in regions where animals spread monkeypox.

Can monkeypox spread from humans to animals?

Monkeypox transmission from people to pets (dogs) is now being explored. Together with our One Health partners, the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH), we are actively watching these developments and considering how to alter our outbreak response and advice if necessary.

Because many animal species are known to be vulnerable to the monkeypox virus, there is the possibility of viral spillover from humans to susceptible animal species in diverse situations, potentially leading to the establishment of new animal reservoirs.

People with monkeypox should avoid close physical contact with animals, including pets (such as cats, dogs, hamsters, gerbils, and so on), livestock, and wildlife.


Who is at risk of catching monkeypox?

People who live with or have close relationships (including sexual contact) with someone infected with monkeypox are the most vulnerable. Anyone who lives with someone who has monkeypox should take precautions to avoid being infected. A person with monkeypox should be evaluated by a health care practitioner to see whether they are healthy enough to be cared for at home and if isolation can be handled safely at home. To protect oneself when caring for monkeypox patients, health staff should practise infection prevention and control methods. Newborn newborns, young children, and persons with underlying immune weaknesses are at a greater risk of developing more severe symptoms, and in rare circumstances, dying from monkeypox. Pregnancy may also raise one’s chances of having a miscarriage or stillbirth.

People who were immunised against smallpox may be immune to monkeypox. Younger individuals, on the other hand, are unlikely to have had smallpox vaccine since the illness was eliminated in most settings worldwide in 1980. People who have received a smallpox vaccination should continue to take steps to protect themselves and others.

What can I do to protect myself and others against monkeypox?

In places where monkeypox is present, avoid unprotected contact with wild animals, particularly those that are ill or dead (including their flesh and blood). Any items containing animal parts or meat should be fully prepared before consumption.

Limit your contact with persons who have suspected or confirmed monkeypox to reduce your chance of contracting it from them. Maintain awareness of monkeypox in your community or social group, and have open dialogues with individuals with whom you have close contact (particularly sexual contact) about any symptoms you or they may be experiencing. Hands should be washed often with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand massage.

Clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces in locations that might have been contaminated with the virus from an infected person.  The monkeypox virus may be killed with common home disinfectants or bleach solutions.

If you suspect you have monkeypox, get medical attention and isolate yourself from others until you have been assessed and tested. If you have monkeypox, you should separate yourself from people until all of your wounds have crusted over, the scabs have come off and a new layer of skin has grown underneath, and all of your internal sores have healed. This will prevent you from spreading the infection to others. Consult your health care provider about whether you should isolate at home or at a health institution. Use condoms as a precaution when having sexual contact for 12 weeks after you have recovered until more is known regarding transmission via sexual fluids.


Can I get monkeypox from touching things and surfaces in public?

Previous monkeypox outbreaks have shown that getting monkeypox after contacting infected materials is possible. If an infected person touches an object, surface, or fabric, it might get contaminated with the monkeypox virus. In some settings, the virus has been discovered to live on various surfaces for some time. However, in this epidemic, researchers are currently investigating whether humans may get monkeypox through contacting surfaces and objects.  Currently, practically all instances are connected to close contact, such as touching or intercourse.

To destroy the monkeypox virus, clean objects and surfaces with soap and water, basic home disinfectants, or a bleach product.

What should I do if I have signs of monkeypox or have been around someone who has it?

If you have had close contact with someone who has monkeypox or have been in an area that may have been contaminated with the virus, keep a watchful eye out for signs and symptoms for 21 days following your last exposure. Limit your close contact with other people as much as possible, and let your contacts know if it is unavoidable that you have been exposed to monkeypox.

If you suspect you have monkeypox, contact your healthcare professional for guidance, testing, and medical treatment. Isolate yourself from people as much as possible until you get your test results. Hands should be cleaned on a regular basis.

If you test positive for monkeypox, your doctor will tell you whether you should isolate at home or in a hospital, as well as what kind of treatment you need.

If I have monkeypox, what should I do to protect other people from getting infected?

If you have monkeypox, your doctor will tell you whether you should be treated in a hospital or at home. This will depend on the severity of your symptoms, whether you have risk factors that put you at risk for more severe symptoms, and if you can reduce your chances of infecting everyone you live with.

You should not go out if it is recommended that you isolate at home. Protect those with whom you live as much as possible by:

  • Inviting friends and relatives to assist you by providing items you need
  • Isolating yourself in a different room
  • Having a separate loo or washing after each use
  • Using soap and water and a home disinfectant, clean and disinfect regularly touched surfaces.
  • Avoid cleaning or vacuuming (this may dislodge virus particles and infect others).
  • Before sharing, use separate utensils, items, and devices, or thoroughly clean with soap and water/disinfectant.
  • There will be no sharing of towels, beds, or clothing.
  • Doing your own laundry (carefully lifting bedding, shirts, and towels without shaking them, placing them in a plastic bag before transporting them to the washing machine, and washing them in hot water > 60 degrees)
  • Ventilation may be improved by opening windows.
  • Encourage everyone in the family to wash their hands with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer on a frequent basis.


If you can’t avoid being in the same room as someone else or having close contact with another person while isolating yourself at home, try to decrease their danger by:

  • Avoiding physical contact
  • Hands should be washed often with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
  • Covering your rash with clothes or bandages (until you can isolate again – your rash heals quickest when left alone)
  • Leaving windows open around the house
  • Ensure that you and everyone else in the room are wearing properly fitted medical masks.
  • Keeping at least one metre apart from others
  • If you are unable to wash your own laundry and require someone to assist you, they should wear a well-fitting medical mask, disposable gloves, and follow the laundry procedures specified above.

Is there a vaccine against monkeypox?

Yes. There are three vaccinations available to protect against monkeypox. Despite the fact that supplies are now limited, get vaccinated if provided since they provide a vital degree of protection against the illness. After being vaccinated, continue to take precautions to avoid catching and spreading monkeypox; this is because immunity takes several weeks to develop after vaccination, and we don’t yet know how well the vaccines protect you or prevent you from infecting others, as efficacy data in this outbreak setting is needed.

Vaccination is recommended in several nations for those who are at risk. Many years of study have resulted in the creation of improved and safer vaccinations for smallpox, which may also be effective for monkeypox. Two of them (MVA-BN and LC16) have been licenced for monkeypox prophylaxis. Only those who are at risk (for example, someone who has had intimate contact with someone who has monkeypox) should be vaccinated. At this time, mass immunisation is not advised.

While the smallpox vaccination has previously been found to be protective against monkeypox, current evidence on the efficacy of newer smallpox/monkeypox vaccines in the prevention of monkeypox in clinical practise and in field settings is sparse. The study of the usage of monkeypox vaccinations wherever they are used will allow for the quick collection of more information on the efficiency of these vaccines in various circumstances.

How should someone take care of themselves if they have monkeypox? What care do they need?

The care someone need will be determined by their symptoms and their risk of developing a more serious condition. People who have monkeypox should listen to their doctor’s recommendations.  Symptoms often last two to three weeks and resolve on their own or with supportive treatment, such as pain or fever medication (such as analgesics and antipyretics).

It is critical for anybody suffering with monkeypox to remain hydrated, eat properly, and get enough sleep. People who are self-isolating should take care of their mental health by doing things they find relaxing and enjoyable, staying connected to loved ones through technology, exercising if they feel well enough and can do so while isolating, and seeking mental health support if necessary.

People suffering from monkeypox should avoid scratching their skin and take care of their rash by washing their hands before and after touching sores and keeping their skin dry and uncovered (unless they are forced to share a room with someone else, in which case they should cover it with clothing or a bandage until they can isolate again). The rash may be cleaned with sterile water or an antiseptic. Saltwater rinses may aid with mouth sores, while warm baths with baking soda and Epsom salts can help with body sores. If necessary, paracetamol may be given to assist control the discomfort produced by sores. A health expert should be consulted if greater pain medication is required.

Many years of study on smallpox therapies have resulted in the discovery of medications that may also be beneficial for treating monkeypox.  The European Medicines Agency authorised tecovirimat, an antiviral intended to treat smallpox, for the treatment of monkeypox in exceptional circumstances in January 2022. There has been little experience with these therapies in the setting of a monkeypox epidemic. As a result, their usage is often accompanied by enrollment in a clinical trial or extended access protocol, as well as the gathering of data that will increase understanding on how to effectively utilise them in the future.

Where in the world is there currently a risk of monkeypox?

A multi-country monkeypox epidemic is presently happening throughout Europe, the Americas, Africa, the Western Pacific, Eastern Mediterranean nations, and South East Asia, where the virus has not before been identified. More cases than usual have been documented in 2022 in previously reported areas of Africa, including Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the Central African Republic. WHO is collaborating with all impacted countries to improve monitoring and give guidelines on how to contain the outbreak and care for patients.

Monkeypox has been documented in various African nations prior to the pandemic. Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone are among them. Some of these nations experienced just a few instances, while others had continuous or recurring epidemics. Travel from Nigeria has been related to a few instances in other countries. The current epidemic, which is hitting many nations at the same time, is unlike earlier outbreaks.

Is there a risk of this becoming the next pandemic?

Monkeypox is not as infectious as other viruses because it needs intimate contact (e.g., face-to-face, skin-to-skin, mouth-to-skin, or mouth-to-mouth), a contaminated environment, or an infected animal to spread. We have a window of opportunity to stem the spread of this epidemic by collaborating closely with communities and groups at greater risk. It is critical that everyone work together immediately to limit the spread by understanding their risk and taking measures to reduce it. In July, the Director General of WHO declared the monkeypox epidemic a public health emergency of worldwide concern and issued Temporary Recommendations to assist nations in combating and controlling the outbreak.

To prevent future spread, WHO is reacting to this epidemic as a top priority. WHO is focused on learning more about how the virus is spreading during this epidemic and preventing additional individuals from being sick. Raising awareness about this new condition will aid in the prevention of future spread.

What do we know about monkeypox and sex?

Monkeypox may be transmitted by any kind of intimate contact, including kissing, touching, oral and penetrative vaginal or anal intercourse with an infected person.  People who have sex with several or new partners are more vulnerable. Although the monkeypox virus has been discovered in sperm, it is still unknown if monkeypox may be transmitted by sperm or vaginal secretions.

If you are having sex, check yourself for symptoms on a frequent basis and advise your partners to do the same. Anyone who develops new or unusual rashes or sores should avoid having sex or other close contact with other people until they have been tested for sexually transmitted diseases (STIs) and monkeypox. Remember that the rash may appear in regions that are difficult to view within the body, such as the mouth, throat, genitals, vagina, and anus/anal area.

Consider decreasing your number of sexual partners to lower your chance of monkeypox. You could wait a while before having sex with new people, or you could stop having sex until the outbreak is under control or until you can get vaccinated (and even then, it’s best to limit your number of partners because no vaccine provides 100% protection and you could still pass the virus on to others). Keep in mind that immunisations take many weeks to work.

If you’re having sex, have open, nonjudgmental talks with your partner or partners and exchange contact information so you may notify each other if you develop symptoms, even if you don’t intend to see each other again.

Wearing a condom will not completely prevent you from monkeypox, but it will minimise your risk or level of exposure and will also protect you and others from a variety of other STIs. People with monkeypox are recommended to wear condoms for 12 weeks following recovery until more is known about virus levels and possible infectivity in sperm during this time.

The virus spreads not just via sexual intercourse, but also through any sort of intimate contact with an infected person. Persons living in the same home are more vulnerable. Anyone experiencing signs of monkeypox should seek medical attention right once.

Are men who have sex with men at higher risk of catching monkeypox?

The danger of monkeypox is not confined to sexually active persons or men who have sex with males. Anyone in close touch with someone suffering from symptoms is at danger. However, the majority of the cases reported in the current epidemic have been detected in males who have intercourse with men.  Given that the virus is now spreading from person to person in these social networks, males who have sex with men may be more vulnerable to infection if they have intercourse or other intimate contact with someone who is contagious. People who have several or new sexual partners are the most vulnerable right now.

Monkeypox cases have been detected in sexual health clinics. One reason we’re getting more reports of monkeypox cases among communities of guys who have sex with males is that this demographic group is more health-conscious. Monkeypox rashes may mimic those of sexually transmitted illnesses such as herpes and syphilis, which may explain why these cases are being reported to sexual health clinics. We may find additional examples in the larger community as we learn more. Monkeypox has been discovered in some mothers and children.

Raising awareness among homosexual, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men is critical to protecting those most vulnerable. If you have intercourse with other males, be aware of your risk and take precautions to protect yourself and others. Anyone experiencing symptoms suggestive of monkeypox should seek medical attention promptly to be diagnosed and treated.

What is WHO’s response to stigma and discrimination related to monkeypox?

We’ve witnessed prejudice and messages stigmatising specific categories of individuals in the aftermath of the monkeypox epidemic. We want to make it quite clear that this is not acceptable. This epidemic response should be carried out in accordance with long-standing ideals of human rights, inclusivity, and the dignity of all persons and communities.

Anyone who comes into close personal contact with someone who has monkeypox, regardless of who they are, what they do, who they have sex with, or any other circumstance, is at danger. It is wrong to stigmatise somebody because of a sickness or condition. Stigma is simply going to make things worse and prevent us from stopping this pandemic as soon as possible. We must all work together to support anybody who has been infected or who is assisting in the care of those who are ill. We understand how to halt the spread of this illness and how we can all safeguard ourselves and others. Stigma and prejudice are never acceptable, and they are more so in the context of this epidemic. We’re in this together.

Is my risk of becoming infected, developing serious symptoms or dying from monkeypox higher if I am living with HIV?

Anyone who comes into touch with someone who has monkeypox is at danger of getting it.

HIV may impair your immune system if left untreated. There is some evidence that being immunocompromised may raise your chances of being infected and developing severe disease or dying from monkeypox if you are exposed. More evidence, however, is required to properly comprehend this.

People with preexisting immunological weaknesses may be more vulnerable to monkeypox. People living with HIV who are aware of their status, have access to, and utilise, medication, may achieve viral suppression. This implies that their immune systems are less susceptible to other illnesses than they would be if they were not receiving therapy. Many persons with monkeypox in the present epidemic also had HIV, but there have been very few severe instances of monkeypox, most likely because their HIV infection was well-controlled in the majority of cases. Studies are being conducted to have a better understanding of these issues.

People who have multiple sexual partners, including those living with HIV, are encouraged to take precautions to reduce their risk of exposure to monkeypox by avoiding close contact with anyone who has symptoms and avoiding high-risk situations where multiple contacts may occur, even with people who are unaware they have monkeypox. Having fewer sexual partners may lessen your risk.


Can children get monkeypox?

Children may get monkeypox if they come into touch with someone who is ill.  According to data from previously impacted nations, children are more susceptible to serious sickness than adolescents and adults.  There have been a few cases of monkeypox among youngsters in the current epidemic. Some children have been exposed to the virus at home via close contact with parents, carers, or other family members. Other children are teens who have had sexual relations with someone infected with monkeypox.

What should I do if a child in my care has symptoms that could be monkeypox?

At first glance, the monkeypox rash resembles other common children diseases such as chickenpox and other viral infections. Consult a healthcare practitioner if a kid you are caring for exhibits signs of monkeypox. They will assist them in getting tested and receiving the necessary treatment.

Children may be more vulnerable to severe monkeypox than adults. They should be constantly watched until they have healed in case they need further treatment. A health professional in charge of the kid may recommend that they be cared for at a health institution. In this case, a healthy parent or carer who is at low risk of monkeypox will be permitted to isolate with them.

What are the risks of monkeypox during pregnancy?

More study is required to better understand the hazards of monkeypox during pregnancy, as well as how the virus may be transmitted to the foetus in the womb, the baby during or after delivery, or during nursing. According to available evidence, acquiring monkeypox during pregnancy may be harmful to the foetus.

Avoid close contact with somebody who has monkeypox if you are pregnant. Anyone who comes into touch with an infected person, regardless of age, may get monkeypox.

Contact your healthcare practitioner if you believe you have been exposed to or are experiencing symptoms of monkeypox. They will assist you in getting tested and receiving the necessary treatment.


Can I continue to breastfeed if I have been diagnosed with monkeypox?

If you have confirmed or suspected monkeypox and are nursing, get guidance from your healthcare professional. They will analyse the danger of spreading monkeypox as well as the risk of depriving your child of nursing. If you can continue to breastfeed and have close contact, they will advise you on how to limit the risk by taking precautions such as covering your sores and wearing a mask to reduce the danger of viral transmission. The danger of infection must be carefully evaluated against the possible damage and suffering caused by discontinuing nursing and close parental-child interaction. It is unknown if the monkeypox virus may be passed from parent to kid via breastfeeding; additional research is needed in this area.

Why is this disease called ‘monkeypox’?

The illness is known as monkeypox because it was discovered in 1958 in study colonies of monkeys. It was only in 1970 that it was discovered in humans. Experts are being consulted on whether the illness should be renamed.

Can the monkeypox virus be spread through a blood transfusion?

You should never give blood if you are sick. If you have a blood donation appointment, examine your health and monitor any signs of monkeypox, and postpone if you don’t feel well.

When individuals may donate blood, severe processes are in place. The potential donor is questioned about their present state of health and any symptoms they are experiencing. This is done to limit the possibility of someone with an infectious illness donating blood.

There have been no cases of monkeypox being transmitted via blood transfusions.

Does past exposure to chickenpox provide any protection against monkeypox?

A separate virus (the varicella virus) causes chickenpox. Past chickenpox exposure does not protect against monkeypox (produced by the monkeypox virus, an orthopoxvirus).

Is there a test to check whether I have had monkeypox in the past?

There are tests available to determine if you have antibodies to orthopoxviruses (the viral family to which monkeypox belongs). These tests may assist determine if you had previously been immunised against smallpox or monkeypox or exposed to an orthopoxvirus. However, the tests cannot tell you if you were exposed to a vaccination, the monkeypox virus, or another orthopoxvirus in the past. As a result, antibody tests are seldom utilised to screen for prior monkeypox exposure or to diagnose a suspected new disease.

I’ve had monkeypox in the past. Can I catch it again?

Our knowledge of how long immunity lasts after monkeypox infection is still limited. We don’t know if a past monkeypox infection provides protection against subsequent infections, and if so, for how long. There have been rare reports of second infections. Even if you have previously had monkeypox, you should take every precaution to prevent being infected again.

If you have had monkeypox in the past and someone in your home now has it, you may protect others by being the designated carer, since you are more likely to be immune than others. You should, however, take all care to prevent being infected.

Are people who are immunosuppressed at higher risk of developing severe mpox?

Immunocompromised patients, notably those with untreated HIV and advanced HIV illness, seem to be at a greater risk of getting severe mpox and dying. Larger, more extensive lesions (particularly in the mouth, eyes, and genitals), secondary bacterial infections of the skin or blood, and lung infections are all symptoms of severe mpox. The statistics reveal that persons with significant immunosuppression (CD4 count fewer than 200 cells/mm3) had the worst symptoms.

People living with HIV who achieve viral suppression by antiretroviral therapy have no increased risk of severe mpox. In the event of infection, effective HIV therapy lowers the likelihood of developing severe mpox symptoms. People who are sexually active and do not know their HIV status should be tested for HIV if it is accessible. HIV-positive people who are receiving effective treatment have the same life expectancy as HIV-negative people. More information may be obtained from your health care provider.

Severe mpox instances in certain countries underscore the critical need to expand equitable access to mpox vaccinations and medicines, as well as HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. Most impacted groups will be left without the tools they need to preserve their sexual health and well-being if this does not happen.

If you have mpox symptoms or believe you may have been exposed, contact your health care provider to get tested for mpox and obtain the information you need to lower your risk of developing more severe symptoms.

Monkeypox (Mpox)

Key facts

  • Mpox, also called “monkeypox,” is a disease caused by a virus called the monkeypox virus, which is a species of the genus Orthopoxvirus. There are two different clades: clade I and clade II.
  • Common symptoms of Monkeypox include a skin rash or mucosal lesions that can last 2–4 weeks, along with fever, headache, muscle aches, back pain, low energy, and swollen lymph nodes.
  • Monkeypox can be passed to humans through direct contact with an infected person, contaminated materials, or infected animals.
  • PCR tests of skin lesions can be used to prove Monkeypox in the lab.
  • Supportive care is used to treat mumps. Some vaccines and treatments for smallpox that have been cleared for use in some countries can also be used for Monkeypox.
  • In 2022–2023, a type called clade IIb spread Monkeypox all over the world.
  • You can avoid getting Monkeypox by staying away from people who have it. Vaccinations can help keep people who are at risk from getting sick.


Mpox, also called “monkeypox,” is a condition spread by the monkeypox virus. It may cause you a fever, a painful rash, and swollen lymph nodes. The majority of people get better, but some get very sick.

Anyone can get Monkeypox. It spreads through touch with people who have it:

  • Individuals, through touch, kissing, or sex;
  • Animals, when shooting, skinning, or cooking them;
  • Materials, such as dirty sheets, clothes, or needles;
  • Pregnant individuals, who may pass the virus on to their developing child.

If you have Monkeypox:

  • Tell anyone you’ve been close to recently
  • Stay at home until all the scabs fall off and a new layer of skin forms
  • Cover the sores and wear a mask when you’re around other people.
  • Don’t touch anyone.

The monkeypox virus, also known as MPXV, is what causes Monkeypox, which used to be called monkeypox. MPXV is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus of the Orthopoxvirus genus in the Poxviridae family. Other viruses in this family include variola, cowpox, vaccinia, and others. Clades I and II are the two groups of genes that make up the virus.

The monkeypox virus was first found in 1958 in monkeys kept for study in Denmark. In 1970, a nine-month-old boy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) was the first person to be diagnosed with monkeypox. Mumps can be passed from person to person and sometimes from animals to people. After smallpox was wiped out in 1980 and vaccinations against it were stopped everywhere, Monkeypox slowly spread through central, east, and west Africa. In 2022 and 2023, there was a worldwide spread. No one knows where the virus comes from in nature, but small animals like squirrels and monkeys can get it.


Person-to-person transmission of Monkeypox can happen through direct contact with infected skin or other lesions, like those in the mouth or genitals. This includes

  • face-to-face contact (talking or breathing),
  • skin-to-skin contact (touching or vaginal/anal sex),
  • mouth-to-mouth contact (kissing), and
  • mouth-to-skin contact (oral sex or kissing the skin).
  • breathing drops or short-range fumes from close touch for a long time

The virus then gets into the body through broken skin, mucous areas (like the mouth, throat, eyes, genitalia, and urethra), or the breathing system. Mumps can spread to other people in the same house and to people who have sex. People who have more than one sexual partner are more likely to get sick.

People can get Monkeypox from animals when they bite or scratch them, or when they hunt, skin, trap, cook, play with dead animals, or eat them. We don’t know everything about how viruses spread through animal groups, and more research is being done.

People can get Monkeypox from infected items like clothes or sheets, from sharps injuries in health care, or in public places like tattoo parlours.

Signs and symptoms

Monkeypox causes signs and symptoms that usually start within a week, but can start anywhere from 1 to 21 days after contact. Symptoms usually last between two and four weeks, but someone with a weak immune system may have them for longer.

Common symptoms of Monkeypox are:

  • rash
  • fever
  • sore throat
  • headache
  • muscle aches
  • back pain
  • low energy
  • swollen lymph nodes.

For some people, the first sign of Monkeypox is a rash. For others, the first sign may be something else.

The rash starts out as a flat sore that turns into a blister filled with fluid. The blister may itch or hurt. As the rash gets better, the sores dry out, harden, and fall off.

Some people have one or two skin blemishes, while others have hundreds or even thousands. These can appear anywhere on the body such as the:

  • palms of hands and soles of feet
  • face, mouth and throat
  • groin and genital areas
  • anus.

Some people also have painful swelling of their rectum, or they have pain and trouble going to the toilet.

People with monkeypox are contagious and can give the disease to others until all the sores have healed and a new layer of skin has grown.

People with weak immune systems, children, and pregnant women are more likely to get sick from monkeypox.

Most of the time, heat, aches in the muscles, and a sore throat are the first signs of monkeypox. The rash of monkeypox starts on the face and moves to the rest of the body, including the palms and soles of the feet and hands. It happens in stages over 2 to 4 weeks: macules, papules, vesicles, and pustules. Lesions have a depression in the middle before they crust over. Then, the scabs fall off. Monkeypox often causes lymphadenopathy, which means that the lymph nodes swell up. Some people can be sick but not show any signs of illness.

In the setting of the worldwide spread of monkeypox that started in 2022 and was mostly caused by the Clade IIb virus, some people get sick in different ways. A rash can show up before or at the same time as other symptoms in just over half of cases, and it doesn’t always spread all over the body. The first spot can be in or around the mouth, in the groyne, or in the anus.

When someone has monkeypox, they can get very sick. For example, germs can get into the skin and cause sores or major damage to the skin. Other complications include pneumonia, an infection of the cornea that causes blindness, pain or trouble swallowing, vomiting and diarrhoea that cause severe dehydration or malnutrition, sepsis, inflammation of the brain (encephalitis), heart (myocarditis), rectum (proctitis), genital organs (balanitis), or urinary passages (urethritis), or death. Monkeypox is more likely to cause major illness or death in people whose immune systems are weak because of medicine or a medical condition. People whose HIV is not well controlled or handled are more likely to get very sick.


Monkeypox can be hard to spot because it looks like other illnesses and diseases. It is important to tell the difference between monkeypox and chickenpox, measles, bacterial skin infections, lice, herpes, syphilis, and other sexually transmitted diseases, as well as allergies caused by medications. Someone with monkeypox might also have an illness that can be spread sexually, like herpes. On the other hand, a child who might have monkeypox could also have chickenpox. Because of these things, testing is important so that people can get care as soon as possible and the disease doesn’t spread further.

The best lab test for Monkeypox is polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which looks for virus DNA. The best diagnostic samples come from the rash itself—skin, fluid, or crusts—and are taken by swabbing it hard. If there are no skin sores, tests can be done with swabs from the oropharynx, the anus, or the pelvic area. It is not a good idea to test blood. Methods for finding antibodies may not be useful because they can’t tell the difference between different orthopoxviruses.

Treatment and vaccination

The goal of treating monkeypox is to get rid of the rash, ease the pain, and keep other problems from happening. It’s important to get care early and in a helpful way to help handle symptoms and keep problems from getting worse.

Getting a vaccine against monkeypox can help keep you from getting sick. The vaccine should be given within 4 days of coming into touch with someone who has monkeypox, or within 14 days if there are no signs.

People who are at a high risk of getting Monkeypox should get vaccine, especially when there is an outbreak. This includes:

  • health workers at risk of exposure
  • men who have sex with men
  • people with multiple sex partners
  • sex workers.

People who have monkeypox should be cared for away from other people.

Tecovirimat and other antivirals that were made to treat smallpox have been used to treat monkeypox, and more research is being done. There is more information about monkeypox vaccinations and how to treat cases.

Self-care and prevention

Most people get better in 2–4 weeks after getting monkeypox. Things you can do to ease the symptoms and keep from spreading the illness:


  • If you can, stay home and in your own room.
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water or hand sanitizer, especially before or after touching sores.
  • Wear a mask and cover sores when you’re around other people until your rash heals.
  • Keep skin dry and covered (unless you’re in a room with someone else);
  • Don’t touch things in shared spaces and clean them often;
  • Rinse mouth sores with saltwater;
  • Soothe body sores with sitz baths, warm baths with baking soda or Epsom salts;
  • Take painkillers like paracetamol (acetaminophen) or ibuprofen.

Do not

  • pop blisters or scratch sores, which can slow healing, spread the rash to other parts of the body, and cause sores to get sick; or
  • shave areas with sores until scabs have healed and new skin is showing (this can spread the rash to other parts of the body).

To prevent Monkeypox from spreading to other people, those who have it should stay at home or, if necessary, in the hospital for as long as they are contagious (from the start of symptoms until sores have healed and scabs fall off). Covering the sores and wearing a medical mask when around other people may help stop the disease from spreading. Using a condom when you have sex will lower your chance of getting monkeypox, but it won’t stop the virus from spreading through skin-to-skin or mouth-to-skin contact.

Source: WHO

Population, Exposure, and Outcome

All participants in a research study are referred to as the study population, regardless of whether they are exposed, treated, experience the desired result, or leave the study early. The suggested research question determines the study’s exposure and results. Any trait that could explain or predict the existence of a research result is referred to as the exposure. The projected feature is referred to as the result.

Whether neonatal hyperbilirubinemia increases the likelihood that children may have linguistic delays in the future is the subject of a research. 100 newborns with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia are identified by researchers, along with a control group of 100 infants. The rates of language delay after three years are then calculated.

  1. What are the study population, exposure, and outcome of this study?
  • study investigates elements that can affect high school students’ usage of the nutritional supplement creatine. 1200 students from 5 metropolitan high schools are interviewed by researchers to learn about their usage of creatine, food preferences, physical activity, and smoking. From the stated dietary information, the researchers extrapolate calorie consumption. The research discovers that among males but not among girls, increased caloric consumption is linked to a higher risk of creatine usage.
  1. What are the study population, exposure, and outcome of this study?
  • A study examines whether surgical experience affects the likelihood of bile leakage during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. An extensive healthcare system’s 800 general surgeons are identified by researchers. They determine the quantity of prior laparoscopic cholecystectomy operations and the quantity of bile leakage for each surgeon using the medical information system. According to the research, surgeons who conduct more laparoscopic cholecystectomies tend to have lower postoperative bile leak rates.
  1. Which of the following exclusion criteria would be least suitable for the study of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy described above?
  • Patients having a history of bile leaks are excluded
  • Patients having a prior history of bile duct disease should be excluded because they run a higher risk of developing a postoperative bile leak.
  • Eliminating doctors whose prior laparoscopic cholecystectomy operations have missing data.
  • The exclusion of surgeons who have only carried out 20 or fewer prior laparoscopic cholecystectomies
  1. Which of the following would promote internal validity of the study of laparo- scopic cholecystectomy described above?
  • assessing the relationship between surgical experience and postoperative mortality
  • including information from additional healthcare organisations from other geographical locations
  • Evaluating the results of further laparoscopic surgical operations
  • Examining medical records to see if postoperative bile leaks that occurred during the research were present.
  1. Which of the following would promote external validity of the study of laparoscopic cholecystectomy described above?
  • Not include individuals with a history of bile leaks
  • Incorporating information from several healthcare organisations worldwide
  • Using person-time data to determine incidence rates of postoperative bile leaks.
  • Examining medical records to see if postoperative bile leaks that occurred during the research were present.

Sun causes wrinkles, dark circles and fine lines on the face: How to prevent skin aging?

A long time ago, the lyrics of an Indian film song caught my ears, which went something like this: ‘Dhoop mein nikla na karo roop ki rani, gora rang kala na pad jaye’.

Despite having no attachment to these lyrics, even fair-skinned people like me must have at least learned in this age of childhood ignorance that exposure to strong sunlight damages our skin’s natural color.

The glory of the memory of this song comes to an end. In the year 2023, spring spread its pleasant colors in most parts of Pakistan, but from the beginning of April, it started to feel as if the sun has come to our senses this time.

On the one hand, when everyone outside seems to seek shade from time to time to avoid the heat of the sun, many people, including me, are experimenting with possible ways to protect themselves from this skin-burning sun.

However, while the sun has many benefits, it also has some disadvantages, especially with regard to skin problems.

According to experts, while the gentle rays of the sun in the morning are said to be helpful for obtaining vitamin D, the sun from 11 am to 3 pm is at its peak, and during this time, going out without any protective measures is harmful to the skin. Can be quite harmful.

So, with the changing of the season, what should be done to protect the skin to avoid the harmful effects of the hot sun, which can give glow (shine and freshness) to our skin in every season, including the heat, to know different skin specialists (specialists in diseases) Soon) we spoke to.

Sunblock is as important in winter as it is in summer. ‘

Dr. Maria Syed, Skin Specialist (Dermatologist) at Shifa International Hospital Islamabad, was the first to tell that whether the weather is cloudy or sunny, UV (ultraviolet rays) from the sun are harmful to our skin. Sun block must be applied for protection.

However, the most immediate sun damage depends on your skin tone. The effects of sun damage on the skin are long-lasting and ‘ageing’ occurs with the appearance of wrinkles, fine lines and wrinkles.

According to Dr Maria, ‘darker or tanned complexions are protected from immediate sun damage, while fair-toned sun damage is more immediate and more severe, with skin tanning first. So first of all the color on it gets a little bad and starts getting tanned. According to Dr. Maria, ‘If we talk about our skin, applying sun protection is very important to avoid the effects of aging.’

Before proceeding, let me remind you that there are three types of UV (ultraviolet rays) in sunlight.۔

  • UVA (UVA) is based on many of the ultraviolet rays that reach the Earth’s surface. Due to its ability to penetrate the skin, it is responsible for 80% of skin aging, from wrinkles to facial blemishes.
  • UVB can damage the DNA in our skin, leading to sunburn and eventually cancer.
  • UVC is very effective at destroying genetic material, but ozone in the atmosphere filters it before it reaches Earth and penetrates our delicate skin.

In this regard, Dr. Maria said that UVA affects the upper skin of the skin, it will tan the skin and create shadows, while UVB radiation also affects the inner layer of the skin and goes to the dermis and destroys collagen. Affects and ages.

Dr. Armila Javed is a skin specialist as well as a cosmetologist. She also recommends regular use of sunblock to avoid the harmful effects of the sun.

The use of sun block is very important to protect the skin. Especially in areas where the sun’s rays are very strong and you spend most of your time outside, the use of sunblock becomes very important.

The use of sunblock protects from the rays of the sun that can cause skin cancer. Apart from this, sunblock also protects against ultraviolet rays, which cause dark spots, wrinkles and dark spots on the skin. These rays of the sun aggravate eczema in many people and bring out various problems including skin inflammation in some.

“Lotion for dry skin and gel and cream sunblock for oily skin”

  • To avoid the harmful rays of the sun, experts are calling the use of sun block necessary, but it is also important to understand how to apply it.
  • Not only this, but the different SPFs written on the sunblock also confuse the general public as to which subblock is suitable for them.
  • According to Dr Maria, SPF stands for Sun Protecting Factor and applying sunblock once in the morning and once in the afternoon can provide good protection.
  • According to Dr. Maria
  • For people who have any serious skin disease, their SPF will be recommended by their doctor, but for those who do not have any skin disease and want to avoid sun rays, SPF 30 to 50. Enough is enough.
  • Those with dry skin should apply sunblock available in the form of a lotion, otherwise the sunblock available in the form of a cream will stick to their skin and look ugly.
  • Some sunblocks are labeled as sebum control, so they are meant for oily or oily skin. Mainly it also controls oil and acne.
  • Both cream and gel sun block can be applied for combination or normal skin.
  • For better protection, reapply sunblock every two to three hours to provide good protection.۔

Avoid sun stress by using an umbrella, hat or p-cap and sunglasses

  • We have known and understood the use of sun block and its benefits, but despite this, many people are not able to apply sun block habitually.
  • It should be remembered that the sun does not harm our skin in one day, but when the skin is affected by the sun from childhood, the problem of aging or pigmentation starts appearing in youth.
  • For such people, experts say that while taking care of our health, we have to change our lifestyle to avoid the harmful effects of the sun.
  • According to Dr. Urmila:
  • ‘Avoid going out unnecessarily when the sun is hot.’
  • Cover yourself with a cotton or muslin cloth when going out. If you have taken a dupatta, cover your face with it or shade it.
  • “Using an umbrella is an easy way to minimize the negative or harmful effects of the sun.”
  • Children or young people who ride a bicycle or bike should wear a cap while in the sun. Even in the case of a helmet, the face is protected from the sun, but if you apply sunblock before that, you can get additional protection.
  • “Pedestrians should also wear a hat or p-cap as it can provide shade.”
  • Those mothers who go to pick up or drop their children from school should not only take an umbrella themselves, but also make the children accustomed to take an umbrella from childhood. ‘

Dr. Maria also shared some tips to avoid harmful effects of sun. According to them

  • “Wearing sunglasses while in the sun helps prevent the stress of the sun, including tightening of the skin around the forehead and around the eyes.”
    Always wear gloves while driving and apply shades on the glasses to protect yourself from the sun and its effects.
    Those who are unable to apply sunblock should at least apply a moisturizer to provide some sun protection. The more raw the skin, the more direct the sun’s rays will affect us۔

Dr. Maria says, “When the sun rays don’t reach us directly, we don’t feel so tired on our skin.”

Aloe vera gel is better for skin but not a substitute for sunblock.

Among the remedies available for many skin problems, aloe vera gel is considered an elixir. And it has been used since ancient times to protect skin and hair. However, can it be a substitute for sunblock? In response to this question, Dr. Maria said that aloe vera gel is not a substitute for sun block.

Elvera gel keeps the skin healthy, but this gel cannot act as a sunblock. It is better to apply aloe vera directly from the plant than its gel formula which is available in the market.

Dr. Urmila says that aloe vera contains natural ingredients that are good for skin and hair alike. According to him, its gel is also helpful in reducing the harmful effects of the harmful rays of the sun, but instead of taking the gel directly from the plant, the commonly available gel in the market is easier to use.

According to Dr. Urmila

  • Aloe vera has a soothing effect on the skin and its gel works well as a conditioner and helps retain moisture.
  • Aloe Vera is neither acidic nor alkaline in nature, so it has an effect on the skin that is equally effective for both children and adults and is completely harmless.
  • Aloe vera gel can be used in all seasons, summer and winter.
  • Aloe Vera gel deeply moisturizes the skin and also helps in reducing the harmful effects of the sun’s harmful rays.

How much and how much sunblock to apply before going out in the sun?

Regarding the application of sun block, some people complain that after applying sun block, a gray or white layer appears on the face, which looks ugly. In the same way, people are afraid of the sunblock being washed off the skin during the heat, so some are afraid of washing their face or washing it off.

Dr. Urmila says that some people cannot tolerate sunblock in the form of creams or lotions, or they do not like the smell, so there are alternatives to sunblock for them.

Some people don’t like a gray or white layer of sunblock or find it a difficult task to apply nblock, in which case we recommend subblocks in powder form that are applied to the skin like face powder. Gets excited. ‘

According to Dr Urmila, oral sun protection tablets or supplements also work to protect the skin in the same way that we get the benefits of sun block cream, lotion or gel.

There are chemicals or supplements that protect against the sun’s rays, we call them oral sun protection tablets or sunblock. They are made from chemicals or plant-derived ingredients that, after eating, provide the same protection to your skin that sunblock in the form of lotions or creams.

Oral sunblock also prevents skin damage by reducing the absorption of ultraviolet radiation, preventing collagen fiber breakdown, pigmentation, and even DNA damage. which may lead to cancer. ‘

According to Dr. Urmila, the effect of oral sunblock or supplement is also more and for more protection, additional protection can be given by applying sunblock on top.

According to them, sunblock should be applied at least one hour before going out in the sun.

We usually apply a small amount of sunblock. A teaspoonful should be applied as a layer for the face and neck as soon as we get protection. After two hours, its effectiveness starts to decrease, even if the mouth is not washed.

According to him, oral sunblock is very useful for people with many types of skin problems. Also, they are very important for those who are allergic to the sun.

Courtesy BBC URDU (

Why does our hair turn gray with age?

American scientists claim that they have discovered the reason why hair turns gray with age.

These scientists have claimed that when the cells that keep the hair black lose their ability to mature, the hair begins to turn white.

If these cells mature, they turn into melanocytes, which maintain the hair’s natural color. A team of researchers from New York University has done this research on mice. Mice have the same type of hair cells.

The research scientists claim that it will help start the process of re-darkening gray hair. According to the British Association of Dermatologists (BAD), the study of melanocytes will help find treatments for certain types of cancer and other health conditions.

How does hair turn white?

We grow old and lose hair. It is a normal process of our life which continues throughout our life. Hair grows from hair glands in the skin, where the cells that keep the hair dark are located.

These cells are formed and destroyed regularly. These cells are formed from stem cells.

Scientists at New York University believe that when the process of making these cells from stem cells stops for any reason, people’s hair starts to turn white.

New York University’s Langwan Health team has studied the formation and development of these cells with the help of special scanning and lab techniques. When hair ages and begins to fall out, hair continues to grow. But later the cells of the melanocytes start to slow down.

The stem cells stabilize in place but the melanocytes do not improve. Due to this, the process of color formation stops and the hair starts turning white.

Can white hair turn black again?

“Our study helps us understand how melanocyte stem cells work to keep hair dark,” Dr. Si Sun, a PhD scholar at New York University Langone Health and leader of the research team, told Nature Journal.

This is not the first time that scientists have hoped to turn white hair back to black. However, malnutrition is also considered to be one of the causes of premature graying of hair.

On the other hand, some other researchers believe that stress also causes graying of hair. According to these experts, the graying of hair can be stopped for some time by removing stress.

On the other hand, according to some researchers, there are genetic reasons for gray hair.

Some people start to dye their hair white or gray prematurely. According to Glamor magazine, the silver hair trend is very popular among young women, besides the shiny and pearly color oyster gray has also become quite popular on Instagram.

Hair stylist Luke Hirschson recently told British Vogue, ‘There was a time when people didn’t want to have gray hair, but we don’t associate gray hair with being ‘old’ anymore, a lot of people do.’

After the lockdown, many people have turned gray hair as the business of hair dyeing has ended and many people are happy with this change.

Usually, people try to remove a hair when it turns gray. According to experts, it is not possible to stop other hairs coming from the same cells from turning white.

Damage to the hair follicles also stops the growth of new hair, in which case the hair begins to recede or become bald.

How big is the hair coloring business?

Dr Leila Asfour of the British Association of Dermatologists told the BBC that hair coloring is big business. He further said, ‘By 2030, the global hair color market will reach 33.7 billion dollars. There is clearly a demand in the market for hair color.

“This research gives a clear indication, from a layman’s point of view, that we are one step closer to turning white hair black again, while from a medical point of view, other hair-related issues are becoming more common,” he said. The complications are better understood.

“It will also help us understand the nature of the disease, for example, melanoma or serious skin cancer,” he said.

This research may be helpful in understanding the disease of ‘hair loss’

According to Dr Leela, it may also help to understand a medical condition known as ‘baldness’. In this condition, the body’s own immune system attacks the hair itself and due to this, the hair falls out. Sometimes these patients have white spots.

According to Dr Leela, ‘this research may provide more information about vitiligo, the appearance of white patches on any part of the skin. To maintain the natural color of the skin, scientists can try transplanting hair follicles into the affected area. However, more research is needed on this.

Dr. Yusser Al Naimi, from the British Hair and Nail Society, said that scalp health becomes important as we age for good hair growth.

“Recent research in mice has increased our understanding of hair follicles and the cells that keep hair black,” he added. More information is being gained about the potential of stem cell therapy for hair loss and other conditions.

In such a scenario, the new research could pave the way for future treatments for patients with pigment-producing cell disorders.

Courtesy BBC/URDU

Introduction to Pharmacology


At the end of presentation learners will be able to:

  • Discuss the terminologies related to pharmacology
  • Discuss the history of pharmacology briefly
  • Identify the purposes of medication
  • Identify the source of medication
  • Discuss the classification of drugs
  • Describe the three type of drug supply system.
  • Discuss the drugs standards and legislation.
  • Identify resource to collect and utilize drug information.
  • Learn to prepare drugs cards


  • Definition: Pharmacology is the science that deals with the study of drugs and their interaction with the living systems.
  • The word Pharmacology is derived from Greek – pharmakon means drug and logos means study.
  • In actual use, however, its meaning is limited to the study of the actions of drugs.
  • Pharmacology has been defined as “an experimental science which has for its purpose the study of changes brought about in living organisms by chemically acting substances (with the exception of foods), whether used for therapeutic purposes or not.”
  • Pharmacology studies the effects of drugs and how they exert their effects.
  • There is a distinction between what a drug does and how it acts.
  • Thus, amoxicillin cures a strep throat, and cimetidine promotes the healing of duodenal ulcers.
  • Pharmacology asks “How”? Amoxicillin inhibits the synthesis of cell wall mucopeptide by the bacteria that cause the infection, and cimetidine inhibits gastric acid secretion by its antagonist action on histamine H2 receptors

Scope Of Pharmacology

  • The scope of Pharmacology is rapidly expanding and Provides the rational bases for therapeutic use of drug.
  • On the basis of study of drug it is divided into two branches .

Branches of Pharmacology

Basic Pharmacology : the study of drugs in isolated tissues animals and other related living beings such as bacteria and viruses for experimental work is called basic Pharmacology.

Clinical pharmacology

  • The study of drugs in human beings is called clinical pharmacology.


  • The study of drugs in animals for treatment of diseases is also called clinical pharmacology.

General Definition of Drug

  • Any chemical agent that is used for diagnosis, prevention, treatment and curement of disease is called drug.
  • This disease oriented definition of drug is not applicable to some drugs such as oral contraceptives and general anesthetics etc.

WHO definition of drug

  • In 1966 WHO define drug as: “Any agent that is used or intended to be used for the treatment of disease or modifying pathological/physiological condition or to explore pathological/physiological condition is called drug”.

Basic definitions

  • Drug means any substance which change the physiology of cell tissue, organ, or organism.
  • Medicine: Whenever, a drug is formulated into a suitable dosage form for prevention, cure, and diagnose of a disease in a proper dose.
  • Dose means the amount of medicine taken
  • Dosage form means the physical form of the medicines (solids, liquids, gas etc.)
  • Therapeutics: Therapeutics deals with the use of drugs in the prevention and treatment of disease.
  • Toxicology: Toxicology deals with the adverse effect of the drug and also the study of poisons, i.e detection ,prevention and treatment of poisoning. (Toxicon =poison in greek.
  • Pharmacodynamics means the mechanism by which the drug exerts its effect. For example, how aspirin work as analgesic. What the drug does to the body.
  • Pharmacokinetics means the movement of drugs within the body (absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and excretion). What the body does to the drug.
  • Over the counter (OTC) medicine: those medicines for which the physician prescription is not required. For examples, analgesics, antacids.
  • Analgesic means those medicines which are used for pain
  • Antipyretics means those drugs which are used for fever
  • Idiosyncratic means unexpected drug reaction
  • Teratogenic means harmful effects of drugs on the fetus
  • Synergism means when the combination of drugs increase the effect
  • Antagonism means when the combination of drugs decreases the effects
  • Patient compliance: The extent to which the patient follows
  • the clinical prescription
  • Pharmacopoeia is an official publication, containing a list of medicinal drugs with their effects and directions for their use.
  • BP: British Pharmacopoeia.
  • USP: United States Pharmacopeia
  • Active ingredient means biologically active substance which produce effect
  • An excipient is a pharmacologically inactive substance formulated alongside the active pharmaceutical ingredient of a medication e.g.. Cellulose derivatives
  • Purposes served by excipients:
  • Provide bulk to the formulation.
  • Facilitate drug absorption or solubility and other pharmacokinetic considerations.
  • Provide stability and prevent from denaturation.
  • Efficacy means maximum effect that a drug can produce regardless of dose.
  • Potency means amount of a drug that is needed to produce a given effect
  • Bioavailability is the degree to which or the proportion of the drug that is available to the site of action or target tissue to produce the desired effect.
  • Half-life (t1/2) is the time taken by the plasma concentration of the drug to decrease by 50%, or reach half of the original concentration. Initially, If a drug has plasma concentration of100 mg/ml and after passing 2 hours it reduces to 50 mg/ml, then the half life would be????..
  • Prophylactic agent is any drug that prevents a disease or illness from occurring (vaccines)

A brief history of pharmacology

  • Originating in the 19th century, the discipline makes drug development possible.
  • Pharmacology is one of the cornerstones of the drug discovery process.
  • The birth date of pharmacology is not as clear-cut.
  • In the early 19thcentury, physiologists performed many pharmacologic studies.
  • François Magendie studied the action of nux vomica (a strychnine-containing plant drug) on dogs, and showed that the spinal cord was the site of its convulsant action. His work was presented to the Paris Academy in 1809.
  • In1842, Claude Bernard discovered that the arrow poison curare acts at the neuromuscular junction to interrupt the stimulation of muscle by nerve impulses.
  • Pharmacology was held to have emerged as a separate science in 1847, when Rudolf Buchheim was appointed professor of pharmacology at the University of Dorpat in Estonia (then a part of Russia).
  • Lacking outside funding, Buchheim built a laboratory at his own expense in the basement of his home. Although Buchheim is credited with turning the purely descriptive and empirical study of medicines into an experimental science, his reputation is overshadowed by that of his student, Oswald Schmiedeberg.

Oswald Schmiedeberg (1838–1921)

  • Oswald Schmiedeberg is generally recognized as the founder of modern pharmacology.
  • Schmiedeberg obtained his medical doctorate in 1866 with a thesis on the measurement of chloroform in blood.
  • In 1872, he became professor of pharmacology at the University of Strassburg, receiving generous government support in the form of a magnificent institute of pharmacology.
  • He studied the pharmacology of chloroform and chloralhydrate.
  • In 1869, Schmiedeberg showed that muscarine evoked the same effect on the heart as electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve.
  • In 1878, he published a classic text, Outline of Pharmacology
  • In 1885, he introduced urethane as a hypnotic.
  • In the United States, the first chair in pharmacology was established at the University of Michigan in 1890 under John Jacob Abel, an American who had trained under Schmiedeberg.
  • In 1893, Abel joined Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore.
  • His major accomplishments include the isolation of epinephrine from adrenal gland extracts (1897–1898), isolation of histamine from pituitary extract (1919), and preparation of pure crystalline insulin (1926). His student Reid Hunt discovered acetylcholine in adrenal extracts in 1906.
  • Today, there is a pharmacology department in every college of medicine or pharmacy.

Purposes of Medication

Medications can be administered for the following purposes

  • Diagnostic Purpose: to identify any disease
  • Prophylaxis: to prevent the occurrence of disease e.g. heparin to prevent thrombosis and antibiotics to prevent infections
  • Therapeutic Purpose: to treat or cure disease / decrease symptoms, restore normal function or maintain normal function

Essentials of medication order

  • The drug order, written by the physician, has 7 essential parts for administration of drugs safely. The nurse should know how to read a drug order. It should have the following components:
      1. Patients full name.
      2. Date and time.
      3. Drug name.
      4. Dosage.
      5. Route of administration.
      6. Time and frequency of administration.
      7. Signature of physician.

Types of Medication Orders

  1. STAT order: needed immediately
  2. Single order: given only once
  3. PRN order: given as needed
  4. Routine orders: given within 2 hours of being written and carried out on schedule
  5. Standing order: written in advance carried out under specific circumstances
  6. Basic principles (Safety) in medication administration3 checks and 7 Rights:
  • Right patient
  • Right dose
  • Right drug
  • Right route
  • Right time
  • Right Frequency
  • Right Documentation

Sources of Drugs

  • Primitive Medicine: observing the reaction of some animals to particular herbs. Through primitive medicine quinine was discovered from Africa; used for malaria and lime juice for Ascorbic acid/Vitamin C and this is used for scurvy and gum bleeding.
  • Plants; Roots, bark, sap, leaves, flowers, seeds were sources for drugs e.g. Digitalis from foxglove, opium from the poppy plant.
  • Animal sources; gave us hormones for replacement in times of deficiencies e.g. Insulin from the pancreases of pigs and cattle, Liver extracts for anemia etc
  • Minerals; including acids, bases and salts like potassium chloride
  • Natural; OCCURRING SUBSTANCES like proteins
  • Happy Chance; Discovery is by chance not by any premeditated effort.
  • Synthesis of Substances; from natural products in the laboratory.


  • Tara V.Shanbhag, Smita Shenoy, Veena Nayak (Pharmacology for Nurses) 2nd Edition

Basic mathematical concepts in the Medical Profession


Mathematics is a group of related sciences, including algebra, geometry, and calculus, concerned with the study of number, quantity, shape and space and their interrelationships by using a specialized notations.

(Mathematical notations include relatively simple symbolic representations, such as the numbers 0, 1 and 2; variables such as xy and z; function symbols such as sin; operator symbols such as “+, -, x etc relational symbols such as “<“,)

Nursing Mathematics/Importance of Mathematics in Nursing

Nursing mathematics reviews and practices basic mathematical skills that are tailored to the needs of a professional nurse.

Nurses, in their daily practices, deal with many problems in which there is use of mathematical knowledge.

It is truth that math is incorporated into the daily lives of the health care professionals. Doctors and nurses use math when they write prescriptions or administer medications.

Mathematics plays a vital role in medicine. Since people’s lives are involved, it is crucial that nurses and doctors be really accurate with their mathematical calculations.

For example,

  • If we have to give 2/3 tablet to a child, as in each country as a nurse we deal with different people and all of them do not understand the meaning of 2/3. A nurse should know that what does 2/3 means?
  • 4.1 Types of fractions | Equivalent fractions | Siyavula
  • If we have to infuse an IV infusion in some particular time, what should be the speed of drip i.e. how many drops/minutes? For example, according to the client’s need and his condition, a different flow rate is used. IV Drip Adjust stock photo. Image of drop, patient, hospital - 37835534
  • Conversion of one system into the others. If a nurse does not know conversion factors between different quantities, then how can he/she be able to convert these? For example, if a nurse does not know that how many kilograms in a pound and also the use of multiplication and division (mathematical operations), then it is not possible to convert pound into kilogram or kilogram into pound.

How To Convert From Pounds To Kilograms and Kilograms to Pounds - YouTube

  • Medication dosage calculations etc are some such problems, which can be solved by nursing mathematics. Especially in pediatric nursing and intensive care unit nursing, it becomes more important than other areas.

New normal in neonatology | University of Iowa Stead Family Children's Hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU) — Special Employees and Conditions | Lecturio

  • It’s easy to figure out how to calculate the correct dose in your hand if the physician order calls for 25 milligrams, but the tablet comes in a 50 milligram. You simply give half the tablet. However, if the medication to be given is based on the patient’s weight in milligrams per kilogram, then you’d need to multiply in order to find out the correct dose.

Understanding Your Healthcare Provider's Prescription Abbreviations Medicine, health, pill, medical, tablet, hand, pharmacy, medication, capsule, care, vitamin, dose, illness, hospital, drug, healthy, treatment, prescription, pain, holding, disease, doctor, healthcare, painkiller, antibiotic, closeup, white, concept ...

  • The reason understanding math is so important is because the wrong dose could mean death of the patient. According to All Experts, that is why it’s so important nurses know how to calculate the correct dose. Normally, it’s the pharmacist who does the calculations. However, if the pharmacy is unavailable to do the calculating, then the nurse would have to know how to do it.

Describe Fraction

1.1 Fraction

A number that expresses the relationship of one or more equal parts to the total number of equal parts in one unit (or one group) is called a fraction.

The common fraction consists of two numerals, one above the other, separated by a fraction bar.

For example, 2/3, 4/6, ½, ¾ etc are fractions.

The meaning of common fraction

A common fraction is:


The fraction 2/3 (two-thirds) means that 2 out of 3 equal parts of one whole are being considered.

Class 7 CBSE Fractions and Decimals| Blog Class-3 Fraction Tutorials and Worksheets

The fraction 2/3 (two-thirds), read from top to bottom, means 2 divided by 3, 2 ÷ 3, or 3∫2.
The fraction 2/3 (two-thirds) means that there are 2 of the thirds, or (2 X 1/3).

Example – 1 (while —- unit)

¾ of the square is shaded

¼ of the square is unshaded

4/4 is one whole square.

Example –2 (while —- group)

3/5 of the group is shaded

2/5 of the group is unshaded

5/5 is one whole group.


Express each of the following in three different ways
  1. ¾
  2. ½
  3. 3/8

B. Write fractions to express the shaded and unshaded portions of each unit or group



Denominator, Numerator, and Fraction Bar

A common fraction has a denominator, numerator, and a fraction bar. The denominator and numerator are called the terms of the fraction. The fraction bar represents the operation of the division.




Fraction Bar



  • The TOTAL number of EQUAL parts in ONE whole the SIZE of each equal part in one whole
  • In fraction/ 2/3, the denominator of 3 means 3 equal parts in one whole the size of each part is one-third (1/3).
  • If the denominator is 1, it means that one whole has one equal part, and that part has the size of one whole. Then 2/1 is read as “two wholes”.


The denominator of a fraction cannot be zero. It is impossible for zero parts to make one whole and it is impossible to divide by zero.


A number (up above the fraction bar) gives an important piece of information.

The NUMERATOR tells the NUMBER of EQUAL parts being used, talked about, or considered.

  • In fraction 2/3, numerator 2 means 2 equal parts are being talked about (out of total of 3 equal parts in one whole).

Fraction bar

In mathematics, the symbol ÷ means “divided by”. Read a fraction from top to bottom when reading as an expression of division.

7/8 = 7 divided by 8 = 7÷ 8 = 8∫7


Fill in the blanks about each fraction.

Look at the fraction.

  1. ¾
    1. What is the total number of equal parts in whole? __________
    2. What is the size of each part? __________
    3. How many parts are being talked about? __________
    4. The numerator is __________
    5. The denominator is __________



A fraction is called proper fraction if the numerator is smaller than the denominator. The value of proper fraction is less than one.

For example: ¾, ¼, 4/5.


A fraction is called improper fraction if the numerator is larger than or equal to the denominator. The value of the fraction is equal to one or more than one.

For example: 4/4, 5/1, 7/4.

Note: Every natural number can be written as a fraction in which 1 isitss denominator. For example, 2 = 2/1, 25 = 25/1, 53 = 53/1, etc. So, every natural number is an improper fraction.

Mixed fraction:

A combination of a proper fraction and a whole number is called a mixed fraction.

2 1/3, 4 5/2, 11 1/10 and 7 5/11 are examples of mixed fractions.

In other words:

A fraction which contains two parts: (i) a natural number and (ii) a proper fraction, is called a mixed fraction, e.g., 3 2, 7 3 etc.
5 4
In 3 2/5, 3 is the natural number part and 2/5 is the proper fraction part.

In Fact, 3 2/5 means 3 + 2/5.


Fractions, which have the same value but look different, are called equivalent (equal) fractions. The written form of the fraction changes, but the value of the fraction remains the same.

For example:

½, 2/4, 4/8, 8/16 are equivalent fractions.


When comparing fractions, these symbols are used

= is equal to 7/8 = 14/16

> is greater than 1/3 > 3/14

< is less than 3/10 < 7/8.


  1. If the denominators are the same, the fraction with larger numerator has the greater value.

For example, in the following fractions 5 is greater numerator so the fraction 5/8 has greater value than 3/8. Its mean 5/8 > 3/8.

Another method for comparison fractions:

For example, we have to compare 5/8 and 3/8

Step I Write 0 after numerators in both fractions. These will be 50/8 and 30/8

Step II simplify these two up to one time only, answers will be 6 and 3 respectively so first is larger value that’s why 5/8 > 3/8

  1. If the numerators are the same, the fraction with the smaller denominator has the greater value.

For example: 2/4 > 2/ 8, ½ > ¼.

Another method for comparison fractions:

For above fractions 2/4 and 2/8

Step I Write 0 after numerators in both fractions. These will be 20/4 and 20 /8

Step II simplify these two upto one time only, answers will be 5 and 2 respectively so first is larger value that’s why 2/4 > 2/8

  1. To compare 2/3 and ¾, a common denominator for both fractions must be found. Rewrite each fraction as an equivalent fraction using the common denominator.

2 X 4 = 8 3 X 3 = 9

——- — ——– —–

3 X 4 = 12 4 X 3 = 12

Now comparing 2/3 and ¾ is the same as 8/12 and 9/12.

Therefore 2/3 < ¾ because 8/12 < 9/12.

Another method for comparison fractions:

For example we have to compare 2/3 and 3/4

Step I Write 0 after numerators in both fractions. These will be 20/3 and 30/4

Step II simplify these two upto one time only, answers will be 6 and 7 respectively so second is larger value that’s why 3/4 > 2/3 OR 2/3 < 3/4

1.2 Decimal or Decimal Fraction

Decimal is a fraction that has an unwritten denominator of a power of 10. It is indicated by a decimal point to the left of the numerator; .2 = 2/10 (Collins Concise Dictionary)

Decimal fractions represent common fractions that have denominators of 10, 100, 1000, or some power of 10. To the left of decimal points are whole numbers and to the right of the decimal points are fractional parts.


1.75, 1 is the whole number which is to the left of the decimal point while 75 is the fractional part as it is to the right of decimal point.

In decimal fractions, a zero is written to the left of the decimal point to indicate clearly that there are no whole numbers in the decimal, just fractional parts, for example, 0.75 (not .75).

First look at the fractional parts. Let’s add a zero to the right of the decimal point.


Decimal Common fraction Words
0.6 6/10 6 tenths
0.60 60/100 60 hundredths
0.600 600/1000 600 thousandths

Notice here that adding zeroes after the last digit to the right of the decimal point does not change the value.

Let’s put the zero in different position:


Decimal Common fraction Words
0.7 7/10 7 tenths
0.07 7/100 7 hundredths
0.007 7/1000 7 thousandths

Adding zeroes between the decimal point and the first number to the right of the decimal point does change the value.

Division of Decimals

Dividend = Quotient



Remember: Quotient is another name for Answer. They’re one and the same.

1.2.1 Division of Whole by Decimal

If the divisor is not a whole number, move the decimal point the same number of places to the right in the divisor and the dividend so that the divisor becomes a whole number. Place the decimal point in the quotient directly above the new decimal point in the dividend. Then divide.

A. 7 ÷ 1.75 = 7 / 1.75

1.75∫7.00 (4



Second Method:

  1. Make the divisor (1.75) a whole number by multiplying 100 times.
  2. Multiplying the dividend (7) by the same number, 100
  3. Place the decimal point in the quotient (your answer).
  4. Divide.

7 x 100 = 700 = 4.

1.75 100 175

Solve the following:

A. 19 ÷ 1.2 (15.83)

B. 15 ÷ 0.7 (21.42)

On the Job practice

Q1. How many 0.5-gram doses can be obtained from a 4-gram vial of medication? (8 doses)

Q2. How many 0.25-gram doses can be obtained from a 2-gram vial of medication? (8 doses)

1.2.2 Division of decimal by whole

If the divisor is a whole number, place the decimal point in the quotient directly above the decimal point in the dividend. Then divide. Look at the following example:

  1. 1.26 ÷ 6 = 1.26 / 6 6∫1.26(0.21




Solve the following:

A. 0.19 ÷ 12 (0.015)

B. 8.89 ÷ 7 (1.27)

On the Job practice

Q. A total of 270.9 grams of meat is to be served in three meals. How many grams of meat should be served in each meal? (90.3 gram)

Q. A total of 1.50-grams of medication is given in 3 doses. How many grams should be given per dose? (0.50 gram per dose)

1.2.3 Division of Decimal by Decimal

A. 14.48 ÷ 0.4 = 14.48 / 0.4

  1. 0.4∫14.48(36.2


2 4

2 4




Second Method:

  1. Make the divisor (0.4) a whole number by multiplying by 10.
  2. Multiply the dividend (14.48) by the same number, 10.
  3. Place the decimal point in the quotient.
  4. Divide.

Solve the following:

  1. 12.24 ÷ 0.6 (20.4)
  2. 15.5 ÷ 1.5 (10.33)

On the Job practice

  1. A container holds 16.25 milliliters of medication. How many 1.25 milliliter doses can be administered from the container? (13 doses)
  2. The total prescribed dosage of medication is 4.5 grams. How many 1.5-gram tablets need to be administered? (3 tablets)

1.3 Percentage

Percent or percentage is another kind of fraction that always has a denominator of 100.

1.3.1 The Meaning of Percentage: –

Percent means “per 100” or “÷ 100”.

Remember that the fraction bar means “divided by”.

6% = 6 percent = 6 per 100 = 6 / 100 6 divided by 100

25% = 25 percent = 25 per 100 = 25 / 100

100% = 100 percent = 100 per 100 = 100 / 100

Dividing by 100 results in “hundredths” as can be seen. Another way of saying percent is hundredths.

1% = 1 percent = 1/ 100 = 1 hundredths

50% = 50 percent = 50/ 100 = 50 hundredths

75% = 75percent = 75/ 100 = 75 hundredths

Common fractions can be equal to one (7/7), less than one (1/7), more than one (15/7). Similarly, decimals can be equal to one (1), less than one (0.5), more than one (1.5).

And percentage too, can be equal to one (100% = 100/100), less than one (30% = 30/100), more than one (150% = 150/100).

1.3.2 Conversion of percent to fractions:

25% = 25/100 = ¼

50% = 50/100 = ½

75% = 75/100 = 3/4

125% = 125/100 = 1 25/100 = 1 ¼

1.3.3 Conversion of percent to decimals:

4% = 4/100 = 0.04

35% = 35/100 = 0.35

100% = 100/100 = 1.

125% = 125/100 = 1.25

1.3.4 Conversion of Fraction to Percentage

A common fraction is converted to percentage in TWO STEPS

Step -1. Express the fraction as decimal (divide the numerator by the denominator)

Step -2. Change the decimal to a percent by multiplying by 100 and add a percent sign (%)

¼ = 1÷ 4 = 0.25 x 100 = 25 %

3/8 = 3 ÷ 8 = 0.375 x 100 = 37.5 %

2/5 = 2 ÷ 5 = 0.4 x 100 = 40 %

Change the common fraction to its equivalent percentage

a. ½ (50%)

b. 5/8 (62.5%)

c. ¾ (75%)

1.3.5 Conversion of Decimal to Percentage:

To convert a decimal to a percent, multiply by 100. Move the decimal point two places to the right and add a percent sign.

0.125 = 0.125 x 100 = 12.5 %

3.9 = 3.9 x100 = 390 %

0.75 = 0.75 x 100 = 75 %

Express the following as an equivalent percent:

    1. 0.50 (50%)
    2. 0.005 (0.5%)

1.4 Formula of Percentage:

Percent (%) = Numerator X 100


1.4.1 How to calculate percentage

Suppose we have to know the percentage of ½

Suppose the percent of ½ is A % then

A = ½ X 100 = 0.5 X100 = 50%

1. Suppose you got 740 marks out of 850 in your SSC. What is your percentage in SSC?

Using above formula

A = 740/850 X 100 = 0.87 X 100 = 87%.

2. What is the percentage of the solution if you have 50 gram of solute in 1000 mL of solution? (Answer 5%)

Solve it yourself using the same method.

Solution Strength as Percent:

Percent strength describes the amount that was dissolved in a liquid to form the solution.

  1. A 5% solution made with pure drug (liquid form) means 5 ml (solute) of pure drug in 100 ml (Solvent) of solution.

5% Solution = 5ml/100 ml

  1. A 5% solution made with pure drug (dry form) means 5 gm(solute) of pure drug in 100 ml (Solvent)of solution.

5% Solution = 5 gm/100 ml

In clinical life we use iv fluids like Inj:5% D/W 1000 cc, or Inj:10% D/W 1000 cc

Its mean in Inj: 5% D/W, there are 5 grams of dextrose i.e. glucose in 100 mL of Distilled water so there will be 50 gram of glucose in 1000 cc of distilled water or there is 50gram of glucose in 1000 cc in this drip, similarly in 10% D/W, there is 100gram of glucose in 1000 cc in this drip.

Conversion of Decimal to Fraction

Decimal fractions can be converted into common fractions by dropping the decimal point to find numerator and using the correct denominator.


A. 0.15 Drop the decimal point to find numerator 15. The proper denominator (100) will have as many zeroes as there are decimal places to the right of the decimal point. 0.15 = 15/100

B. 0.2 Drop the decimal point to find numerator 2. The proper denominator (10) will have as many zeroes as there are decimal places to the right of the decimal point. 0.2 = 2/10

C. 0.005 Drop the decimal point to find the numerator 5. The proper denominator (1000) will have as many as zeroes as there are decimal places to the right of the decimal point. 0.005 = 5/1000

2. Apply four fundamental operations on fraction, decimal and percentage:

Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division of Fractions

Addition of Fractions:

  1. Add 3/8 + 2/8 + 5/8

Solution: first of all we take Least Common multiple (LCM), as denominator is same then this is the LCM

3/8 + 2/8 + 5/8

3 + 2 + 5 = 10/8 = 5/4 = 1 ¼ Answer


as this is not a proper fraction and Answer should have proper fraction so we convert it into mixed fraction.

  1. Add 2/3 + ¾ + 1/6

Solution: first of all, we take Least Common multiple (LCM), as denominators are different then we use the following method.

2 3,4,6

2 3,2,3 3 3,1,3


Hence 2x2x3=12 is LCM, each of 3,4, and 6 can multiply 12 completely without remainder.

2/3 + ¾ + 1/6

8 + 9 + 2 = 19/12 = 1 7_ Answer.

12 12

  1. Add 3 3 + 4 5

4 6

Note: Mixed numbers are first written as improper fraction (6 ½ = 13/2). Whole numbers are written as fraction by putting whole number over the denominator 1. Whether there is any of four operations.

  1. Solution: 3 3 + 4 5

4 6

Make improper fraction

  1. 3 ¾ Multiply 4 and 3, it wl be 12 now add 3(numerator) it will be 15. Now rewrite it as 15/4
  2. similarly change 4 5/6 and write as 29/6

Now add 15/4 and 29/6, same as Q. No.2.

Subtraction of Fractions:

  1. Subtract 1/8 from 7/8

Solution: first of all we take Least Common multiple (LCM), as denominator is same then this is the LCM.

7/8 – 1/8

7 – 1 = 6/8 = ¾ Answer (answer should in minimum fraction)


Similarly do the following yourself

  1. Subtract 9/16 from ¾
  2. Subtract 7 7 _ 3

8 4

Multiplication of Fractions

    1. Multiply 15/8 and 7/30

15 X 7 = 7 Answer

8 30 2 16

    1. Multiply ½ and ¼
    2. Multiply 3, 2/9, and 9/10.

Division of Fractions:

Division involves the use of a reciprocal (or inverse). The reciprocal of a fraction is its “flip.” Change mixed numbers and whole numbers to their equivalent improper fractions first. Then find the reciprocal of the divisor by inverting (flipping) it.


  1. Divide 2 ½ by ¼ or 2 ½ ÷ ¼

Or 5/2 ÷ ¼


5 X 4 = 5 X 2 = 10 Answer

2 1

  1. Divide ¾ by ¼
  2. Divide 8 by 4 1


Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division of Decimal

Addition of Decimal Numbers:

To add any decimal numbers, line up the decimal points. To avoid confusion, add zeroes after the last digit to make all of the decimal fractions’ same length. This does not change the value of the decimal fraction.

Find the sum of the following

(keep in mind that you have to keep the numbers according to digit place i.e. unit, 10th, 100th etc as kept in Q.No. below)

  1. 8.45 + 7.98



16.43 answer

  1. 6.94 + 0.5 + 17.102 + 8

Subtraction of Decimal Numbers:

  1. 8.4 – 0.7
  2. 7.8 – 3.92
  3. 6 – 3.45

On the Job

  1. A patient receives the following doses of medication: 1.75 milliliters, 2.5 milliliters, and 2 milliliters. What is the total dosage? (6.25 mL)
  2. A vial contains 3.5 milliliters of medication. An injection of 2.25 milliliters is withdrawn from the vial into a syringe. How much medication remains in the vial? (1.25 mL)
  3. Patient Ali weighed 65.95 kilograms (kg) 2 months ago. His weight then increased by 0.9 kg one month, and 1.58 kg the next month. What is his current weight? (68.43 Kg)
  4. A patient is to receive a dosage of 2.5 milligrams (mg) and has been given 1.75 mg. What additional amount of medication must be administered? (0.75mg)

Multiplication of Decimals

Observe the names given to the parts of a multiplication problem.

Factor X Factor = Product

0.2 X 0.4 = 0.08

A. 6.51 (2 decimal places)

X .2 (1 decimal place)

1.302 (3 decimal place)

  1. Multiply 30.7 and 1.6 (49.12)
  2. Multiply 7.9 and 12 (94.8)

On the JOB

  1. A patient is given 0.09 kilogram of meat for each meal. How many kilograms of meat are served in nine meals? (0.81 kg)
  2. A container holds 10.75 liters of ethyl alcohol. How much alcohol is in six of these containers? (64.5 liters)

Divisions of Decimals:

Already done previously

  1. Apply the percentage formula in different word problems:
  2. 1 out of 45 patient received insulin. —— %


Using the formula for percent = numerator/denominator X 100

1/ 45 X 100 = 2.22 % patients received insulin.

  1. 75 out of 125 patients required follow up visits ——– % (60 %)
  2. 1 out of 110 patients received a blood transfusion. —– % (0.90 %)
  3. Nearly 0.07 of the patients stayed fewer than two days. —— %


0.07 = 7/100 X 100 = 7%

5. Only 0.005 of the patients remained in the hospital for more than two weeks.

—- % (0.5 %)