Ulcerative colitis

Definition:

Ulcerative colitis characterized by inflammation & ulceration of colon & rectum. It occurs at any age but peaks between 15-25 years, often in females.

Clinical features:

  1. Anorexia
  2. Nausea
  3. Weight loss
  4. Weakness
  5. Malaise
  6. Fever
  7. Leukocytosis
  8. Anemia iron deficiency
  9. Profuse diarrhea (15-20 stools per day)
  10. Stool containing blood, mucus & possible pus
  11. Abdominal cramps

Complications:

  1. Hemorrhage
  2. Strictures perforation
  3. Toxic mega colon
  4. Colon dilation
  5. Renal stone
  6. Conjunctivitis
  7. Perforation
  8. Iritis
  9. Stomatitis

Investigations:

  1. Fiber optic colon scopy
  2. Sigmoid scopy
  3. Barium enema
  4. CBC
  5. Stool for blood, culture & sensitivity

Medical Management:

  1. Anti-inflammatory drugs
  2. Corticosteroids (Oral/IV)
  3. Immunosuppressive agents
  4. Azothropine
  5. Cobolmin Inj:

Surgical Management:

  1. Ileostomy
  2. Ileorectostomy

Nursing Management:

  1. Advised for high calorie, well balanced diet and sufficient sleep
  2. Keep rectal area clean, use rectal ointment or Sitz bath

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