Anemia

Definition:
Anemia is defined as the low RBC’s (erythrocytes) counts.

Normal values:
 Male: 14-16 gm
 Female 13-15 gm

Types of the anemia:
Iron deficiency anemia:
Iron deficiency anemia is defined as iron is insufficient in the body and erythrocytes are not formed and result in iron deficiency anemia occurs. Etiology:

  1. Mal-absorption
  2. Decrease in iron diet
  3. Gastritis
  4. Intestinal worms
  5. Excessive menstrual bleeding
  6. Loss of blood

Megablastic anemia:

Anemia due to the deficiency of Vitamin B-12 and folic acid, which are essential for DNA synthesis due to deficiency of large number of nucleotides immature (cells) magablast. Etiology:

  1. Deficiency of vitamin B-12
  2. Deficiency of folic acid

Pernicious anemia:
This is anemia which is caused due to the deficiency of vitamin B-12.
Etiology:

  1. Deficiency of vitamin B-12
  2. Insufficient of intrinsic factor
  3. Mal-absorption of the vitamin B-12
  4. Intestinal worms
  5. Mal-nutrition

Hemolytic anemia:
In this anemia, life of erythrocytes (80-120 days) becomes short bone marrow is unable to form adequate amounts of erythrocytes which are destroyed by disease such as: Malarial Parasite.

Anemia due to the Chronic Disease
Some chronic disease such as; tuberculosis, Osteomyelitis cancer they decreases the count of erythrocytes.
Aplastic anemia:
Bone marrow disorder characterized by abnormal depression of cellular elements of blood due to the reduction of erythrocytes.
Sickle cell anemia:
A genetically determined defect of the hemoglobin synthesis characterized by presence of sickle cell anemia
Clinical features

  1. Pallor of mucus membrane
  2. Hypotension
  3. Hypo_volumia
  4. Cold & bluish extremities
  5. Hypothermia
  6. Tachycardia
  7. Nail cracking
  8. Brittle nails
  9. Dimminess of vision
  10. Headache
  11. Pale face
  12. Stomatitis
  13. Inflammation of tongue
  14. Drowsiness
  15. Dysponea
  16. Giddiness

Treatment:

  1. Iron sulphate 225mg TDS
  2. Inj: vitamin B12
  3. Inj: Cobolmin
  4. Blood transfusion in severe case

Investigations:

  1. CBC
  2. ESR
  3. Hb%
  4. Serum for vitamin
  5. Blood for parasite test
  6. Urine DR

Nursing Care:

  1. Advised for sufficient sleep
  2. Advised for well balanced diet full with iron, vitamins, and proteins
  3. Carbohydrates and pretentious food encouragement
  4. Extra warmth should be provided for hypothermia
  5. Irritant foods, beverages and alcohol should be restricted
  6. TPR & BP should be recorded
  7. Mouth care should be provided to prevent from Stomatitis
  8. Skin care should be given to prevent from bed sore
  9. Maintains I/O chart
  10. Maintain oxygen inhalation
  11. Educate the patient for the hygienic purpose.

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