Cardiac failure

Definition:

Cardiac failure is a state in which heart cannot maintain an adequate cardiac output mostly due to arrest of blood circulation to the heart. It may be acute or chronic.

Types of cardiac failure:

  1. Left sided heart failure
  2. Right sided heart failure
  3. Biventricular heart failure
  4. Forward heart failure
  5. Backward heart failure
  6. Systolic and diastolic dysfunction

Etiology:

  1. MI
  2. Ventricular fibrillation
  3. Arterial fibrillation
  4. Myocarditis
  5. Hypertension
  6. Rhythm heart disease

Clinical features:

  1. Apnoea
  2. Dysponea
  3. Fatigue
  4. Malaise
  5. Pain in recumbent position
  6. Oliguria
  7. Peripheral edema
  8. Complication:
  9. Uremia
  10. Hypokalaemia
  11. Thrombosis
  12. Embolism
  13. Arrhythmia

Investigations:

  1. ECG
  2. Chest cardiography
  3. Blood for urea
  4. Serum CR/ LDH test
  5. Urine DR
  6. CBC

Medical Management:

  1. Diuretics
  2. Inj: Lasix
  3. ACE inhibitor
  4. Aspirin

Nursing Management

  1. Check vital signs
  2. Physical-mental rest provided
  3. Bed should be elevated on head at 30 angles
  4. Orthoponea position should be maintained
  5. Stress, anxiety should be reduced
  6. I/O chart should be maintained
  7. Administer the drug as prescribed by the physician
  8. Restriction of the sodium
  9. Avoid from heavy eating & drinking
  10. Avoid from smoking, stress and alcohol.

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