- The word “gangrene” comes from the Greek “ganggraina” denoting “an eating sore that ends in mortification”.
- The death of body tissue due to the loss of blood supply to that tissue, sometimes permitting bacteria to invade it and accelerate its decay.
- Gangrene is a complication of necrosis “cell death” characterized by the decay of body tissues, which become black and appearing “rotten”.
- It is caused by infection or ischemia, such as a thrombosis.
GANGRENE… WHAT IS IT???
- It is usually the result of critically insufficient blood supply.
- Often associated with diabetes and long-term smoking.
- Condition is most common in the lower extremities.
- Basically Your Blood Supply Gets Cut Off And Your Tissue Decides To Die
TYPES OF GANGRENE
- DRY GANGRENE
- WET GANGRENE
- GAS GANGRENE
- The early signs are a dull ache and sensation of coldness in the affected are.
- If caught early, the process can sometimes be reversed by vascular surgery.
- If necrosis sets in, the affected tissue must be removed and treated like a case of wet gangrene.
- Wet gangrene occurs in naturally moist tissue and organs such as the mouth, bowel, lungs, cervix, and vulva.
- Bedsores occurring on body parts such as the sacrum, buttocks and heels (not in “moist” areas) are also categorized as wet gangrene infections.
- In wet gangrene, the tissue is infected by microorganisms, which cause tissue to swell and emit a fawol order.
- Wet gangrene usually develops rapidly due to blockage of venous and/or arterial blood flow.
- The affected part is saturated with stagnant blood which promotes the rapid growth of bacteria.
- The toxic products formed by bacteria are absorbed causing systemic manifestation of bacteria and finally death.
- The affected part is soft, putrid, rotten and dark.
- The darkness in wet gangrene occurs due to the same mechanism as in dry gangrene.
- Gas gangrene is a bacterial infection that produces gas within tissues.
- It is a deadly form of gangrene usually caused by bacteria.
- Infection spreads rapidly as the gases produced by bacteria expand and effect healthy tissue.
- Gas gangrene is caused by environmental bacteria.
- These Bacteria are mostly found in soil.
- These environmental bacteria enter the muscle through a wound and cause necrotic tissue and powerful toxins.
- These toxins destroy nearby tissue, generating gas at the same time.
- Gas gangrene can cause necrosis, gas production, and sepsis.
- Progression to toxemia and shock is often very rapid.
- Because of its ability to quickly spread to surrounding tissues, gas gangrene should be treated as a medical emergency.
- Noma is a gangrene of the face.
- Necrotizing fasciitis affects the deeper layers of the skin.
- Fournier gangrene usually affects the male genitals.
- Is a gangrenous disease leading to tissue destruction of the face, especially the mouth and cheek.
- Risk factors include severe protein mal nutrition and unsanitary conditions.
- Commonly known as flesh-eating disease or flesh-eating bacteria.
- Rare infection of the deeper layers of skin and easily spread within the subcutaneous tissue
- A type of necrotizing infection usually affecting the male genitals.
- In the majority of cases it is a mixed infection caused by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria
- Cleaning the wound
- Avoid the contaminated material
- Improve circulation in patients with poor circulation
- Removal of the Tissue.
- In case of moist gangrene we can make scarification of Tissue. with knife or puncture the gangrenous Tissue.
- to permit the escape of toxic liquid and allowing the introduction of antiseptic inside the lesion
- Application of counter-irritant at the periphery of the affected part
- This will cause increasing of hyperemia and phagocytosis near the affected Tissue.
- Which accelerate the separation of the moist or dry gangrene from the health Tissue.
- The best treatment of gangrene is amputation of the part from the body
- High doses of antibiotic : Penicillin
- The dead tissue is removed or limbs are amputated
- No vaccine
- 10 megaunits of benzyl penicillin daily for 5 days as four 6 hourly doses Or Tetracycline 0.5 g intravenously or 1 g orally every 6 hours.
- Clostridia not sensitive to metronidazole, some other anaerobic bacteria are, so give it.