Research MCQs-Part-III

101. Which of the following is NOT concept of measurement theory?
a. Directness of measurement
b. Reliability
c. Feasibility
d. Measurement error

102. If a test measures a single construct then:
a. The items should correlate with the total score
b. The items should not correlate with the total score
c. The test should not correlate with other measures of the same construct
d. There must be a reliable alternative form.

103. An ordinal scale is used to rank order people, objects, or characteristics.
a. True
b. False

104. Which scale is the simplest form of measurement?
a. Nominal
b. Ordinal
c. Interval
d. Ratio

105. Let’s say that a test accurately indicates participants’ scores on a future criterion (e.g., the PSAT is used to indicate high-school GPA scores). This test would clearly have which of the following?
a. Face validity
b. Concurrent validity
c. Predictive validity
d. Content validity

106. If a baseball coach calculates batting averages, what scale would be used?
a. Interval scale
b. Ratio scale
c. Nominal scale
d. Ordinal scale

107. Most of the outcome/dependent variable characteristics and attributes measured on educational characteristics probably exist at the ______________ level of measurement.
a. Nominal
b. Ordinal
c. Interval
d. Ratio

108. Reliability is most simply known as which of the following?
a. Consistency or stability
b. Appropriateness of interpretations on the basis of test scores
c. Ways in which people are the same
d. A rank order of participants on some characteristic

109. An ordinal scale is:
a. The simplest form of measurement
b. A rank-order scale of measurement
c. A scale with equal intervals between adjacent numbers
d. A scale with an absolute zero point
e. A categorical scale

110. Which of the following is not a type of reliability?
a. Test-retest
b. Split-half
c. Content
d. Internal consistency

111. Which is the process of gathering evidence supporting inferences based test scores?
a. Validation
b. Validity
c. Reliability
d. Prediction

112. Which of these is not a method of data collection?
a. Questionnaires
b. Interviews
c. Experiments
d. Observations

113. Which of the following statements accurately describes test-retest reliability?
a. Measure of consistency of test scores over time
b. Measure of consistency of scores obtained from two equivalent halves of same test
c. Measure of consistency with which a test measures a single construct or concept
d. Measure of degree of agreement between two or more scorers, judges, or raters

114. Which of the following types of reliability refers to the consistency of test scores over time?
a. Equivalent forms reliability
b. Split-half reliability
c. Test-retest reliability
d. Inter-scorer reliability

115. Which one most closely refers to a judgment of the extent to which scores from a test can be used to infer, or predict, the examinees’ performance in some activity:
a. Content reliability
b. Face validity
c. Criterion-related validity
d. Inference validity

116. Which of the following is the correct order of Stevens’ four levels of measurement?
a. Ordinal, nominal, ratio, interval
b. Nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio
c. Interval, nominal, ordinal, ratio
d. Ratio, interval, nominal, ordinal

117. When evaluating tests and assessments, “reliability” refers to asking ourselves which of the following questions?
a. Does it measure what it is supposed to measure?
b. Are there ways to avoid subjective judgments when measuring something?
c. Does it give consistent results?
d. Does it measure multiple constructs?

118. Which type of reliability refers to the consistency of a group of individuals’ scores on two equivalent forms of a test designed to measure the same characteristic?
a. Split-half
b. Test-retest
c. Split-forms
d. Equivalent forms

119. Which one is refers to how well the particular sample of behaviors used to measure a characteristic reflects the entire domain of behaviors that constitutes that characteristic.
a. Construct validity evidence
b. Criterion-related validity evidence
c. Content validity evidence
d. Face validity evidence

120. Secondary/existing data may include which of the following?
a. Official documents
b. Personal documents
c. Archived research data
d. All of the above

121. Which of the following terms best describes data that were originally collected at an earlier time by a different person for a different purpose?
a. Primary data
b. Secondary data
c. Experimental data
d. Field notes

122. Open-ended questions provide primarily ______ data.
a. Confirmatory data
b. Qualitative data
c. Predictive data
d. None of the above

123. Which of the following types of sampling involves the researcher determining the appropriate sample sizes for the groups identified as important, and then taking convenience samples from those groups?
a. Proportional stratified sampling
b. Quota sampling
c. One-stage cluster sampling
d. Two-stage cluster sampling

124. When each member of a population has an equally likely chance of being selected, this is called:
a. A nonrandom sampling method
b. A quota sample
c. A snowball sample
d. A Random Sample

125. Researchers use both open-ended and closed-ended questions to collect data. Which of the following statements is true?
a. Open-ended questions directly provide quantitative data based on the researcher’s predetermined response categories
b. Closed-ended questions provide quantitative data in the participant’s own words
c. Open-ended questions provide qualitative data in the participant’s own words
d. Closed-ended questions directly provide qualitative data in the participants’ own words

126. Which of the following techniques yields a simple random sample?
a. Choosing volunteers from an introductory psychology class to participate
b. Listing the individuals by ethnic group and choosing a proportion from within each ethnic group at random.
c. Numbering all the elements of a sampling frame and then using a random number table to pick cases from the table.
d. Randomly selecting schools, and then sampling everyone within the school.

127. Which of the following is not true about stratified random sampling?
a. It involves a random selection process from identified subgroups
b. Proportions of groups in the sample must always match their population proportions
c. Disproportional stratified random sampling is especially helpful for getting large enough subgroup samples when subgroup comparisons are to be done
d. Proportional stratified random sampling yields a representative sample

128. Which of the following statements are true?
a. The larger the sample size, the greater the sampling error
b. The more categories or breakdowns you want to make in your data analysis, the larger the sample needed
c. The fewer categories or breakdowns you want to make in your data analysis, the larger the sample needed
d. As sample size decreases, so does the size of the confidence interval

129. Which of the following formulae is used to determine how many people to include in the original sampling?
a. Desired sample size/Desired sample size + 1
b. Proportion likely to respond/desired sample size
c. Proportion likely to respond/population size
d. Desired sample size/Proportion likely to respond

130. Which of the following is not a form of probability sampling?
a. Simple random sampling
b. Systematic sampling
c. Purposive sampling
d. Cluster sampling

131. Which of the following is not a form of nonrandom sampling?
a. Snowball sampling
b. Stratified sampling
c. Quota sampling
d. Purposive sampling

132. People who are available, volunteer, or can be easily recruited are used in the sampling method called ______.
a. Simple random sampling
b. Cluster sampling
c. Systematic sampling
d. Convenience sampling

133. Which of the following will give a more “accurate” representation of the population from which a sample has been taken?
a. A large sample based on the convenience sampling technique
b. A small sample based on simple random sampling
c. A large sample based on simple random sampling
d. A small cluster sample

134. Sampling in qualitative research is similar to which type of sampling in quantitative research?
a. Simple random sampling
b. Systematic sampling
c. Quota sampling
d. Purposive sampling

135. Which of the following would generally require the largest sample size?
a. Cluster sampling
b. Simple random sampling
c. Systematic sampling
d. Proportional stratified sampling

136. In which of the following nonrandom sampling techniques does the researcher ask the research participants to identify other potential research participants?
a. Snowball
b. Convenience
c. Purposive
d. Quota

137. If we took the 500 nursing students attending a school in Karachi, divided them by gender, and then took a random sample of the males and a random sampling of the females, the variable on which we would divide the population is called the _____.
a. Independent variable
b. Dependent variable
c. Stratification variable
d. Sampling variable

138. The type of sampling in which each member of the population selected for the sample is returned to the population before the next member is selected is called _________.
a. Sampling without replacement
b. Sampling with replacement
c. Simple random sampling
d. Systematic sampling

139. Which of the following would usually require the smallest sample size because of its efficiency?
a. One stage cluster sampling
b. Simple random sampling
c. Two stage cluster sampling
d. Quota sampling

140. The process of drawing a sample from a population is known as _________.
a. Sampling
b. Census
c. Survey research
d. None of the above

141. Which of the following sampling methods is the best way to select a group of people for a study if you are interested in making statements about the larger population?
a. Convenience sampling
b. Quota sampling
c. Purposive sampling
d. Random sampling

142. Which one is a set of elements taken from a larger population according to certain rules?
a. Sample
b. Population
c. Statistic
d. Element

143. Determining the sample interval (represented by k), randomly selecting a number between 1 and k, and including each kth element in your sample are the steps for which form of sampling?
a. Simple Random Sampling
b. Stratified Random Sampling
c. Systematic Sampling
d. Cluster sampling

144. The nonrandom sampling type that involves selecting a convenience sample from a population with a specific set of characteristics for your research study is called _____.
a. Convenience sampling
b. Quota sampling
c. Purposive sampling
d. Snowball sampling

145. When an extraneous variable systematically varies with the independent variable and influences the dependent variable, it is called:
a. Another dependent variable
b. A confounding variable
c. A moderating variable
d. An unreliable variable

146. Which type of validity refers to the degree to which you can infer that the relationship between two variables is causal?
a. Internal validity
b. Population validity
c. Ecological validity
d. Statistical conclusion validity

147. An extraneous variable that systematically varies with the independent variable and also influences the dependent variable is known as a _______________.
a. Confounding variable
b. Third variable
c. Second variable
d. Both a and b are correct

148. The use of multiple observers to allow cross-checking of observations to make sure that the investigators agree with what took place is known as
a. Interpretive validity
b. Researcher bias
c. Multiple operationalism
d. Investigator triangulation

149. Which one refers to physical or mental changes that may occur within individuals over time, such as aging, learning, boredom, hunger, and fatigue?
a. Instrumentation
b. History
c. Maturation
d. Testing

150. What type of validity refers to the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized across time?
a. Ecological validity
b. External validity
c. Internal validity
d. Temporal validity

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *