Research MCQs-Part-II

51. Which of the following can best be described as a categorical variable?
a. Age
b. Annual Income
c. Grade Point Average
d. Religion

52. In research, something that does not “vary” is called a ___________.
a. Variable
b. Method
c. Constant
d. control group

53. The strongest evidence for causality comes from which of the following research methods?
a. Experimental
b. Causal-comparative
c. Correlational
d. Ethnography

54. good qualitative problem statement:
a. Defines the independent and dependent variables
b. Conveys a sense of emerging design
c. Specifies a research hypothesis to be tested
d. Specifies the relationship between variables that the researcher expects to find

55. Sometimes a comprehensive review of the literature prior to data collection is not recommended by grounded theorists.
a. True
b. False

56. The research participants are described in detail in which section of the research plan?
a. Introduction
b. Method
c. Data analysis
d. Discussion

57. The statement of purpose in a research study should:
a. Identify the design of the study
b. Identify the intent or objective of the study
c. Specify the type of people to be used in the study
d. Describe the study

58. A qualitative research question:
a. Asks a question about some process, or phenomenon to be explored
b. Is generally an open-ended question
c. both a and b are correct
d. None of the above

59. According to the text, which of the following orders is the recommended in the flowchart of the development of a research idea?
a. Research topic, research problem, research purpose, research question, hypothesis
b. Research topic, research purpose, research problem, research question, hypothesis
c. Research topic, research problem, research purpose, research question, hypothesis
d. Research topic, hypothesis, research problem, research question, research purpose

60. One step that is not included in planning a research study is:
a. Identifying a researchable problem
b. A review of current research
c. Statement of the research question
d. Conducting a meta-analysis of the research
e. Developing a research plan

61. Sources of researchable problems can include:
a. Researchers’ own experiences as educators
b. Practical issues that require solutions
c. Theory and past research
d. All of the above

62. Which of the following is a function of theory?
a. Integrating and summarizing current knowledge
b. Making predictions
c. Explaining phenomena
d. All of the above are important functions of theory

63. A review of the literature prior to formulating research questions allows the researcher to do which of the following?
a. To become familiar with prior research on the phenomenon of interest
b. To identify potential methodological problems in the research area
c. To develop a list of pertinent problems relative to the phenomenon of interest
d. All of the above

64. Computer database searches can be done:
a. With a computer with CD-ROM drive
b. At the library
c. Online
d. All of the above

65. What is the primary approach that is used by the IRB to assess the ethical acceptability of a research study?
a. Utilitarianism
b. Deontology
c. Ethical skepticism
d. Comparativeism

66. The feasibility of a research study should be considered in light of:
a. Cost and time required to conduct the study
b. Skills required of the researcher
c. Potential ethical concerns
d. All of the above

67. A formal statement of the research question or “purpose of research study” generally;
a. Is made prior to the literature review
b. Is made after the literature review
c. Will help guide the research process
d. b and c

68. Research hypotheses are ______.
a. Formulated prior to a review of the literature
b. Statements of predicted relationships between variables
c. Stated such that they can be confirmed or refuted
d. b and c

69. Hypotheses in qualitative research studies usually _____.
a. Are very specific and stated prior to beginning the study
b. Are often generated as the data are collected, interpreted, and analyzed
c. Are never used
d. Are always stated after the research study has been completed

70. A research plan _____.
a. Should be detailed
b. Should be given to others for review and comments
c. Sets out the rationale for a research study
d. All of the above

71. The Method section of the research plan typically specifies EXCEPT;
a. The research participants
b. The results of prior studies that address the phenomena of interest
c. The apparatus, instruments, and materials for the research study
d. The planned research procedures

72. The Introduction section of the research plan
a. Gives an overview of prior relevant studies
b. Contains a statement of the purpose of the study
c. Concludes with a statement of the research questions &, for quantitative research, it includes the research hypothesis
d. All of the above

73. Which of the following is necessary in obtaining informed consent?
a. A description of the statistical analyses that will be carried out
b. A description of the purpose of the research
c. A description of the reliability and validity of test instruments
d. A list of publications that the researcher has had in the last ten years

74. Which of the following need(s) to be obtained when doing research with children?
a. Informed consent from the parent or guardian
b. Assent from the child if he or she is capable
c. Informed consent from the child
d. Both a and b

75. Ideally, the research participant’s identity is not known to the researcher. This is called:
a. Anonymity
b. Confidentiality
c. Deception
d. Desensitizing

76. Which of the following is true about the use of deception in research?
a. It should never be used
b. It can be used anytime
c. If there is deception in a study, the participants may need to be debriefed
d. The use of deception must be outweighed by other benefits of the study
e. Both c and d are true

77. Which of the following is not an ethical guideline for conducting research with humans?
a. Getting informed consent of the participant
b. Telling participants they must continue until the study has been completed
c. Keeping participants’ identity anonymous
d. Telling participants they are free to withdraw at any time

78. ________ means that the participant’s identity, although known to the researcher, is not revealed to anyone outside of the researcher and his or her staff.
a. Anonymity
b. Confidentiality

79. Which of the following is not true?
a. Misrepresenting and creating fraudulent data is dishonest
b. Misrepresenting data is very easy to detect
c. Misrepresenting data can be difficult to detect
d. Breaking confidentiality is not a problem

80. What is it called when the participants are not revealed to any one but researcher and staff?
a. Confidentiality
b. Anonymity
c. Ethics
d. Discretion

81. Research participants must give what before they can participate in a study?
a. Guidelines
b. A commitment
c. Informed consent
d. Private information

82. Identify the term that refers to a post study interview in which all aspects of the study are revealed, reasons for the use of deception are given, and the participants’ questions are answered?
a. Desensitizing
b. Debriefing
c. Dehoaxing
d. Deploying

83. A set of principles to guide and assist researchers in deciding which goals are most important and in reconciling conflicting values when conducting research is called ____.
a. Research ethics
b. Deontological approach
c. Utilitarianism
d. None of the above

84. IRB is an acronym for which of the following?
a. Internal Review Board
b. Institutional Rating Board
c. Institutional Review Board
d. Internal Request Board

85. The act of publishing the same data and results in more than one journal or publication refers to which of the following professional issues:
a. Partial publication
b. Duplicate publication
c. Deception
d. Full publication

86. Which term refers to publishing several articles from the data collected in one large study?
a. Duplicate publication
b. Partial publication
c. Triplicate publication
d. None of these

87. Which of the following is a right of each participant in research?
a. Deception
b. Utilitarianism
c. Freedom to withdraw
d. Participants have no rights

88. The use of statistics to make assumptions concerning some unknown aspect of a population from a sample of that population is known as follow;
a. Inferential Statistics
b. Parameter
c. Descriptive Statistics
d. Sampling

89. Which of the following is not an assumption underlying testing and measurement?
a. Various approaches to measuring aspects of the same thing can be useful
b. Error is rarely present in the measurement process
c. Present-day behavior predicts future behavior
d. Testing and assessment benefit society

90. Systematic error is associated with:
a. Reliability
b. Validity

91. Which of the following generally cannot be done in qualitative studies conducted in the field?
a. Getting informed consent
b. Keeping participants from physical harm
c. Maintaining consent forms
d. Having full anonymity rather than just confidentiality

92. Which of the following is a type of criterion–related validity evidence?
a. Concurrent evidence
b. Predictive evidence
c. Internal consistency
d. Both a and b are correct answers

93. The actual population of study participants selected from a larger population is known as:
a. Target population
b. Accessible population
c. Population
d. Cluster

94. Sampling criteria may be used by Nurse to develop the desired sample. Characteristics those must be present for a subject to be included in the sample is called:
a. Inclusion criteria
b. Exclusion criteria
c. Representativeness
d. Consent

95. Selection of sample in this study is an important step in doing research. A good sample is:
a. One that includes both male and female nurses
b. One that shows a balance in the number of nurses from hospital and school
c. One that is representative of the population from which it was selected
d. One that can be manipulated and controlled

96. A study in which we see the nurse’s level of education is classified in which level of measurement?
a. Nominal-scale
b. Ordinal scale
c. Interval scale
d. Ratio-scale

97. Which one of the following supports “reasoning moves from general to specific situation or conclusion”?
a. Scientific reasoning
b. Deductive reasoning
c. Inductive reasoning
d. None of the above

98. Which one of the following is a type of nonparametric test?
a. t-test
b. Chi-squire
c. z-test
d. f-test

99. Which one of the following is consists of rules for assigning numbers to objects to represent quantities of attributes?
a. Reliability
b. Measurement
c. Measurement error
d. Validity

100. Following are the elements of research critique EXCEPT ONE;
a. Methodological dimensions
b. Practical dimensions
c. Ethical dimensions
d. Interpretive dimensions

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