61. The sum of the absolute deviation about mean for the values: 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 is always:

a. **Not equal to zero**

b. 2

c. 10

d. Not possible.

62. The mean of a data is defined as:

a. The sum of the values is multiplied by the numbers of the values

b. **The sum of the values divided by the numbers of the values**

c. Divide every value by a constant number.

d. The square of values is divided by the numbers of the values.

63. The mean, median and mode the given values: 42, 42, 42, 42, 42, 42, are

a. Mean=42, median=44, mode=46

b. 12

c. **The same value**

d. 0

64. When we add or subtract any constant values in the original values then, it is known as:

a. Deviation about mean

b. **Change of origin.**

c. Change of scale.

d. Mean deviation

65. The square root of the mean of the square deviation about mean is known as:

a. The variance

b. **Standard deviation**

c. Central value.

d. The average value.

66. When p-value is less than α (level of significance) then we: ———–

(a) **Reject **o H (b) accept o H

(c) None of these (d) Reject A H

67. The probability of any event is defined as the number of the favorable events divided by the number of the sample space. Sample space is defined as:

a. Even number of out comes.

b. Odd number of out comes.

c. **All possible out comes of an Experiment**.

d. None of all these.

68. A portion of the population selected for study is referred to as:

a. **a sample**

b. parameter .

c. Hypothesis.

d. Random variable.

69. A major purpose of doing research is to infer, or generalize, from a sample to a larger population this method is known as:

a. Sampling Design

b. Measures of dispersion.

c. Probability.

d. **Testing of hypothesis.**

70. Some characteristics are not capable of being measured in the sense that height, weight, and age are measured. These characteristics are categorized only, as for example, when an ill person is given a medical diagnosis, or a person is designated as belonging to an ethnic group. These variables are called:

a. **Qualitative (categorical) variables**

b. Random variable

c. Quantitative variable

d. Not possible.

71. If we have the values x1 = 80, x2 = 90, x3 = 100, x4 = 110, x5 =120.the mean of the data is:

a. **100**

b. 0

c. 90

d. 120

72. The variance for the given values is:

xi | (xi – )2 |

84 | 4 |

95 | 121 |

67 | 289 |

92 | 64 |

X = |

(a) 0 (b) 64

(c) 10 **(d) 218.5**

73. The coefficient of variation is a useful measure of relative spread in data and is used frequently in the biologic sciences. It is defined as the standard deviation divided by the mean times 100%. It produces a measure of relative variation-variation that is relative to the size of the mean. The formula is:

(a) *Median ***Mode*

(b) *S*.*d ***mean*

(c) *Mean/ Variance*

**(d) sd/mean***100

74. The sum of the absolute deviation about mean is always:

a. **Positive.**

b. Negative

c. Zero and negative both at a time

d. Zero

75. If we add or subtract any constant value in the original data, this process is known as change of origin and similarly if we multiply or divide the original data by any constant then it is known as change of scale. The mean of the original observations is 10, if we add a constant 5 in each observation then mean will be:

a. 0

b. Same as 10

c. **15**

d. 5

76. Which of the measures of variability is NOT dependent on the exact values of every measurement?

a. Mean deviation

b. Variance

c. **Range**

d. Standard deviation

77. The standard deviation divided by the mean of the measurements equals is known as:

a.

b. **The coefficient of variation**

c. 2

d. zero

78. Z-test is always used to test the population mean whether population variance is known or unknown when sample size n should be :—————-

a. less than 30

b. **equal or greater than 30**

c. no condition

d. none of these

79. Using the given information’s

Groups | Mean | S.D | C.V |

A | 80 | 12 | 15 |

B | 120 | 15 | 12.5 |

The group is consistent.

(a) A **(b) B**

(c) A & B both. (d) Both are not consistent.

80. The mean of the absolute deviation about mean is known as:

a. variance

b. Standard deviation.

c. **Mean deviation about mean.**

d. Mean.

81. All possible outcomes of an experiment is known as sample space. When a coin is tossed 3 times then total sample space is

a. 0

b. 6

c. **8**

d. 10

82. Two events A and B are said to be mutually exclusive events if and only if:

a. Both occur at a time.

b. **only one occurs**

c. Neither of them occurs

d. none of them

83. The probability of any event is defined as the number of the favorable events divided by the sample space.

a. **The sum of the probabilities should be equal to one.**

b. The probability of any event lies between -1 and +1.

c. The probability of any event can’t be negative.

d. The probability lies between 0 and 1.

84.

m 1 2

m 1

2f f f

(f f )* h

l is the formula for ———- for grouped data.

a. Mean

b. Median

c. Range

d. **Mode**

85. The minimum size of a Contingency table is : —————

a. 1×1

b. **2×2**

c. 10×10

d. No minimum size

86. t-test is always used to test the population mean whether population variance is known or unknown when sample size n should be :—————-

a. **less than 30**

b. equal or greater than 30

c. no condition

d. none of these

87. In a contingency table with 4 rows and 6 columns then degree of freedom is

a. **15**

b. 24

c. 4

d. 6

88. The critical value for the Chi-square test with 2 degree of freedom at 5% level of significance is;

a. 2

b. **5.991**

c. 0

d. -2.4

89. The ANOVA method is used to test the equality of more then two population means at a time the test statistic is used in this method is known as:———–

a. t-test

b. chi-square test

c. **F-test**

d. z-test

90. In testing of hypothesis in order to test the equality of more than two population means at a time the ——————– method is used.

a. **Analysis of variance**

b. student t-test

c. Chi-square test

d. none of these

91. Random Sampling or Probability sampling includes all the following techniques, except:

a. Simple random sampling

b. Stratified random Sampling

c. Cluster sampling

d. **Purposive Sampling**

92. Gender, age-class, religion, type of disease, and blood group are measured on;

a. **Nominal Scale**

b. Ordinal Scale

c. Interval Scale

d. Ratio Scale

93. Which scale of measurement has an absolute zero?

a. Nominal

b. Ordinal

c. **Interval**

d. Ratio

94. The variable which is influenced by the intervention of the researcher is called:

a. Independent

b. **Dependent**

c. Discrete

d. Extraneous

95. The statistical approach which helps the investigator to decide whether the outcome of the study is a result of factors planned within design of the study or determined by chance is called:

a. Descriptive statistics

b. **Inferential statistics**

c. Normal distribution

d. Standard deviation

96. Which of the following methods is a form of graphical presentation of data?

a. Line Diagram

b. Pie diagram

c. Bar diagram

d. **Histogram**

97. All the following are measures of central tendency, except:

a. Mean

b. Median

c. Mode

d. **Variance**

98. A measure of central tendency influenced by extreme scores & skewed distributions is;

a. **Mean**

b. Median

c. Mode

d. Range

99. A measure of central tendency in which is calculated by number arranging in numerical order is:

a. Standard deviation

b. Range

c. **Median**

d. Mode

100. The proportion of observations fall above the median is:

a. 68%

b. **50%**

c. 75%

d. 95%

101. The indices used to measure variation or dispersion among scores are all, except:

a. Range

b. Variance

c. Standard deviation

d. **Mean**

102. A measure of dispersion of a set of observations in which it is calculated by the difference between the highest and lowest values produced is called:

a. Standard deviation

b. Variance

c. **Range**

d. Mode

103. A statistic which describes the interval of scores bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile ranks is:

a. **Inter-quartile range**

b. Confidence Interval

c. Standard deviation

d. Variance

104. The Median value is the:

a. 25th percentile

b. **50th percentile**

c. 75th percentile

d. 95th percentile

105. Large standard deviations suggest that:

a. **Scores are probably widely scattered.**

b. There is very little deference among scores.

c. mean, median and mode are the same

d. The scores not normally distributed.

106. The formula given below is computational formula for:

a. Variance

b. Mean

c. **Standard deviation**

d. t-statistic

107. The squire of the standard deviation is the:

a. Variance.

b. Standard error

c. Z-score

d. **Variance**

108. Which is NOT a characteristic of normal distribution?

a. Symmetric

b. Bell-shaped

c. Mean = median = mode

d. **Negative skewness**

109. Skewness is a measure:

a. **of the asymmetry of the probability distribution**

b. which decides whether the distribution may have high or low variance

c. of central tendency

d. None of the above

110. The listed observations- 1,2,3,4,100, suggest the distribution:

a. **is positively skewed**

b. is negatively skewed

c. has zero skewness

d. is left-skewed

111. Which statement about normal distribution is FALSE:

a. **50 percent of the observations fall within one standard deviation sigma of the mean.**

b. 68 percent of the observations fall within one standard deviation sigma of the mean.

c. 95 percent of observation falls within 2 standard deviations.

d. 99.7 percent of observations fall within 3 standard deviations of the mean.

112. A measure used to standardize the central tendency away from the mean across different samples is:

a. skewness

b. Range

c. **Z-score**

d. mode

113. Probability values fall on scale between:

a. -1 to +1

b. **0 and 1.**

c. -3 to + 3

d. 0.05 to 0.01

114. Standard error is calculated by:

a. **Dividing standard deviation by the square root of the sample size.**

b. Dividing number of nominated outcome by number of possible outcome.

c. Adding all the numbers and then dividing by the numbers of observations.

d. Arranging the numbers in numerical order, then taking the middle one.

115. 95% confidence interval refers to:

a. **A. considering 1 out of 20 chances are taken to be wrong.**

b. B. considering 1 out of 100 chances are taken as wrong.

c. C. considering 95 out of 100 chances are taken as wrong.

d. D. considering 5 out of 20 chances are taken as wrong.

116. The given formula is used to calculate: (O= Observed frequency, E= Expected frequency)

a. t-test

b. **chi-squire statistic**

c. correlation coefficient

d. Standard deviation

117. A contingency table (2×2) is used to calculate:

a. t-statistic

b. correlation coefficient

c. variance

d. **chi-squire statistic**

118. Correlation coefficient ranges from:

a. 0.01 to 0.05

b. 0 to 1

c. **-1 to +1**

d. -3 to +3

119. A type of graphical presentation data used to explain correlation between dependent and independent variable is:

a. Histogram

b. Frequency polygon

c. Frequency curve

d. **Scatter plot**

120. When explaining the direction of the linear association between two numerical paired variables, a positive correlation is stated when:

a. One variable increases and the other variable decreases or vice versa.

b. dependent variable increases and independent variable decreases

c. **Both variables increase and decrease at the same time.**

d. Correlation coefficient is stated close to 0.