Wound: Abnormal break in skin which permits the escape of blood, and may allow the entrance of germs, causing infection.
Types of Wound:
- Incise Wound – Clean cut caused by sharp instrument.
- Laceration Wound – Jagged cut or tear caused by sharp irregular edges.
- Contusion – Caused by blunt instrument / fall against hard surface. Skin is not broken.
- Abrasion – Simple scrapes and scratches usually from a sliding fall.
- Puncture Wound – Penetrating wound by sharp, pointed instrument. Can result in serious internal injury.
- Stab Wound – Caused by a bladed object.
- Gun Shot Wound
Ways to Stop Bleeding:
- Direct pressure
- Indirect pressure
-Wash your hands and wear a pair of gloves.
– Rinse wound with running water.
– Dab gently to dry.
– Apply direct pressure or elevation if bleeding still occurs.
– Cover wound with sterile swab.
– Clean surrounding area of skin with water and soap.
– When cleaning, wipe away from wound and use each swab only once.
– Avoid wiping away blood clots.
– Pat dry.
– Dress wound with adhesive dressing.
Aim of managing severe bleeding: a) control bleeding b) minimize risk of infection
– Lay casualty down to prevent shock.
– Support injured part.
– Send to hospital.
– Wash hands.
- Triangular bandage (Reef Knot – L over R; R over L)
- Broad bandage
- Narrow bandage
Slings and Bandaging:
- Simple sling
- Elevated sling
- Scalp bandage
- Palm bandage
- Fist bandage
Fracture: A break or crack in the bone caused by direct force and indirect force.
- Closed or simple fracture (no wound)
- Open or compound fracture (wound is present)
- Comminuted (totally crushed)
- Green stick injury (In children; mixture of bend and break)
- Unstable fracture
Management of Closed Fractures:
- Do not move the casualty until you support the injured part.
- Steady and support the injured part.
- Immobilize the injured part using bandages and slings.
- Elevate the injured part.
- Treat for shock if possible.
- Check circulation every 10 minutes.
- Send to hospital.
- Do not give him anything to eat or drink.
Management of Open Fractures:
- Cover wound with sterile / clean dressing.
- Control bleeding.
- If wound is jutting, place padding.
- Immobilize the injured part.
Dislocation: Displacement of a bone at a joint caused by strong force, wrenching the bone into an abnormal position or violent muscle contraction.
Sprain: Injury to a ligament at or near a joint frequently caused by wrenching movement at joint that tears the surrounding tissue.
Strains: Partial tearing of the muscles at the junction of muscle and tendon that joins it to a bone.
Management of Sprain and Strains (Soft Tissue Injury):
|I||Ice – Reduce swelling|
If injury is very bad, send the casualty to the hospital.
Cramps: Sudden, involuntary and painful muscle spasm.
Cramp in Foot:
- Ask casualty to stand on toes.
- Massage foot with fingers.
Cramp in Calve:
- Straighten the knee.
- Draw the foot firmly and steadily upwards towards the shin.
Cramp in Back of Thigh:
- Straighten the knee by raising his leg.
- Massage the muscles.
Cramp in Front of Thigh:
- Bend knee.
- Massage muscles slowly.
Signs & Symptoms:
- Difficult to move a limb
- Pain near the site of injury
- Shortening, bending or twisting of the limb
- Crepitus (sound) caused by grating of the bone end
Lifting and Moving Casualty
- Do not move casualty unless absolutely necessary.
- Explain to casualty what you are doing.
- Never move casualty alone.
- Instruct helpers what they are supposed to do.
- Protect yourself using the correct techniques.
- Ensure casualty’s safety.
Correct Lifting Techniques:
- Place feet comfortably apart, one slightly in front of the other.
- Keep back straight.
- Bend your knees.
- Grip with both hands.
- Keep weight of person you are lifting as close to you as possible.
Casualty is conscious and able to walk:
- Use the human crutch
Casualty is conscious but unable to walk:
- Drag method
- 4 handed seat
- 3 handed seat
- 2 handed seat
- Fore & aft
- Carry chair
Casualty is unconscious:
- Cradle method
- Drag method
- Fore & aft
- Stretcher method