A. DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP:
- It is an action of the leader, the leadership is the activity on influencing the people to co- operate towards some goals which they come to find desirable.
- It is the use of ones skills to influences other to the best of their abilities.
- It is process of influencing others.
- Leadership, a process of influencing group activities towards achieving goals in a given situation.
- DEFINITION OF THE LEADER:
- A leader is a person who leads people for achieving goals in a given situation through influencing.
- TYPES ACCORDING TO STYLE:
- Autocratic(Authoritative) Style leadership Advantages/ Characteristics:
- Absolute leadership by the one person (Greek: autokrateia)
- Autocratic Leadership has unlimited powers
- Autocratic Leadership is firm, instant and self-assured
- Autocratic Leadership possesses one-way communication.
- Autocratic Leadership is disciplined
- Autocratic Leadership is peaceful and forceful.
- Autocratic Leadership is a dictatorship
- Autocratic Leadership is good for quality of work
- Autocratic Leader is director and dominate personality
- Autocratic Leadership is favorable to deal in emergency due to the punctuality
- Autocratic Leadership, people are well informed about their job
- Lack of moral
- Conflict develops easily
- Workers are lazy
- More concerned with the task rather than right of the workers.
- Democratic(Participative) Style leadership Advantages/ Characteristics:
- This leadership is by the people, for the people and of the people
- Democratic leader, shares their ideas with co-workers
- Democratic leader, always makes decision before to consult the follower
- Democratic leader, improves job satisfaction that leads to the mental and social health
- Democratic leader gets high moral, free discussion, positive motivation and social equality.
- Democratic leadership is a creative leadership
- Democratic leadership is a two-way process of communication
- Democratic leader, gets suggestions and complains
- Democratic leader, get more quality and quantity of work
- Democratic leadership is time consuming style leadership
- Democratic leader, acts as a helper
- Democratic leadership based on equality.
- Laissez fairs (Free-rain / Anarchic) style leadership:
- This leadership is extreme form of democratic.
- Free-rain leader, leaves most of his/her work on the members
- Free-rain leader has no established goal and policies.
- Free-rain leader, gives authority to the followers
- Free-rain leader, gets job satisfaction
- Free-rain leader, gets less work but quality of work is found
- It is non-interference leadership style
- In this over-expectations are found that leads towards the frustration
- It is highest form of the freedom
- Lack of trust is found among the group
- Leader does not help in decision making
- Workers are careless
- Discipline is absent
- More freedom leads to over-confidence and frequentness
- Multicratic style leadership:
This leadership combines the best point of three (Autocratic, Democratic & Free-rain) traditional style of leadership.
- Bureaucratic style leadership:
- A government by the central administration (Oxford)
- Modifying autocratic style leadership:
- Modifying auto-cratic type is help between democratic and free-rain style.
- TYPES ACCORDING TO PERSONAL CHARACTERSTICS:
- Trained leadership (leader is trained for job)
- Emergent leadership (leader is emerged from the followers)
- Charismatic leadership (leader possess enthusiasm)
- THEORIES OF THE LEADERSHIP:
- THE GREAT MAN THEORY:
According to this theory, there are certain inborn qualities present in an individual as, intelligence, courage, self-control and decision making and theory described as leaders are born not made.
- TRAIT THEORY: (Latin; tracus= Tract)
According to this theory, all the human activities like eating, language and culture are sought through learning and experience and also this theory explains that leadership is acquired through learning and experience.
- CHRIASTMATIC THEORY:
According to this theory, there is personal quality of leadership that arouses a special loyalty or enthusiasm and emotional commitment among the followers.
- SITUATIONAL THEORY:
A person could be a leader in a situation and follower in another situation. This leader depends upon the situation and general intelligence does not seem to be the answer.
- CONTIGENCY (Connectively) THEORY:
According to this theory the effectiveness of leader is depending upon in inter-personal relationship of leader and workers.
- PATH-GOAL(Expectancy/ Smooth way goal) THEORY:
According to this theory, leaders are effective because of the influence on follower’s motivation; to perform and their satisfaction leadership smooths the path to achieve the goal.
- GROUP & EXCHANGE THEORY:
This theory indicates that followers has effect over on the behavior on the leader and leader has effect on the attitudes of the followers, and theory states that leadership is an exchange process between leader and the followers.
- FACTORS EFFECTING ON LEADERSHIP:
- Personal factors:
- Socio-economic status
- Cultural back ground
- Environmental factors:
- Social factor
- Political factor
- Expectation of society
- Social structure
- FUNCTION OF THE LEADERSHIP:
- Initializing function
- Supervising and Controlling
- Supporting & Motivating
- Staffing (such as job description, interviewing)
- Processing paper work
- Disciplining & punishing
- Interacting with out-siders
- QUALITIES OF THE LEADERSHIP:
Most of the qualities depend upon the style of the leadership
- Knowledge & professional skills
- Educated & trained in his/her job
- Interested in his/her profession
- Physically fit
- Hard worker
- Good judgment
- Team spirit
- Common sense
- Active & Cheerful
- Diplomatic in his/her dealings
- Respected by the society
- Kind hearted
- Adaptable to different circumstances
- Enthusiastic in his/her work
- Self-disciplined and
- Communication skills
- Good listener
- Effective speaker
- Soft-spoken words
- Easy to talk
- Skills of working together
- Facilitator rather than leader
- LEADERSHIP BASIS OF POWER:
- Reward power
- Punishment power
- Information power
- Expert power
- Legitimate power
- Referent power
TYPES OF REWARD:
- Natural Reward:
- Social: as friendly greeting, feed back performance
- Advancement: & facilities: as special assignment smile, early time off duty, office facilities.
- Arranged Reward:
- Consumable reward: such as; Break tea, free lunch
- Manipulatable reward: Such as; Trophies, Watches, Company cars
- Visual/ Auditory reward: Such as; speakers allowed in the office
- Token reward: Such as; Money, Vacation trip.
- RELATIOSHIP BETWEEN NURSING AND LEADERSHIP:
The role of a nurse as a leader is given as under:
- Leader of the ward
- Leader of the group
- Ward sister
- Class Representative
- Ward sister
- Leader in the hospital
- Leader in the society
Founder of the Modern Nursing Miss: Florence Nightingale showed great job in the Crimean war in 1954 through providing sanitary work in the hospital at time she worked as a leader in the society.
- PRINCIPLES OF THE LEADERSHIP:
As a leader, a leader should know;
- His profession & specific skills
- Determine self limitation & try to get self improvement
- He/She keep his/her staff & look out for their welfare
- He/She should keep his/her group members well informed.
- He/ She sets the example for his sub-ordinates
- He/She ensures that task is being performed is understandable, organized, supervised and accomplished.
- He/She should trained his/her staff as a team
- He/She make just and timely decisions
- He/She should develop a sense of responsibility among the sub-ordinates.
- He/She should distribute work among the sub-ordinates according to their capabilities.
- He/She accept responsibility of his/her actions.
- HOW A GOOD LEADER TRY TO PREVENT FROM DISPUTE:
Disputes can be prevented by:
- Frequent meeting of team members
- Allowing people to express views openly & letting the whole group decide
- Sharing agreed objectives
- Having delegated job description
- Distribution task fairly
- Observe the health; worker is prepared for health care.
- Using principles of the medication
- Perform procedures properly or not his/her behavior is good or bed.
- Making a checklist before going to start task.
- FORMAL & INFORMAL LEADER:
Leader is formal when practicised by a designed leader of a group. e.g.: leadership practiced by the Nursing Superident INFORMAL LEADER:
Leadership is informal when practicised by a team member who is not designed as a leader of the group in an official capacity.
e.g.: Nurse of a hospital un-officially chooses one of them as their leader in order to present their problem to administration.
- POSITIVE & NEGATIVE LEADER:
The leader inspires his/her followers towards constructive activities resulting in progress of the group as well as that of the society.
e.g.: Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah who guided the Muslims if India and through developed unity among them resulted creation of Pakistan.
In this type of leadership, the leader inspires his/her followers towards destructive activities. e.g.: Hitler was a negative leader who guided his country towards the destruction.