Myocardial Infarction (Heart attack)


MI occurs when ischemic intracellular changes become irreversible & necrosis results. Angina as a result of ischemic causes reversible cellular injury & infarction in the result of sustained ischemia causing irreversible cellular death.


  1. Active causes:
  2. Thrombosis
  3. Embolism
  4. Heart failure
  5. Mal-formation of aorta
  6. Passive causes:
  7. Smoking
  8. Hypertension
  9. Obesity
  10. Stress

Clinical features:

  1. Chest pain
  2. Nausea
  3. Vomiting
  4. Fever
  5. Hypertension
  6. Decrease urinary output


  1. Arrythinias (abnormal wave)
  2. CCF
  3. Cardiogenic shock
  4. Papillary muscle dysfunction
  5. Ventricular aneurysm
  6. Pericarditis
  7. Right ventricular infarction
  8. Pulmonary embolism
  9. Dressler’s syndrome


  1. ECG
  2. Serum enzymes
  3. CBC
  4. Urine DR

Nursing management

  1. Ensure patent airway
  2. Administrator of oxygen inhalation
  3. Obtain 12 lead ECG
  4. Medicate for pain ad ordered
  5. Monitor vital signs, LOC and oxygen saturation
  6. Reassure patient
  7. Prepare for CPR
  8. Avoidance from alcohol and smoking
  9. Avoid from activity
  10. Just talk to your partner, express your feelings
  11. Avoid position of the sex that require you to support your support on arms for a long time
  12. Never take very hot or cold baths or shower before or after sex
  13. Have a sex in a pleasant, comfortable environment
  14. Hugging and touching are safe ways to get back in touch with your partner
  15. Lipids should be restricted and educate about nutrition.

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