Q1) a) define Folic acid deficiency anemia.
Folate-deficiency anemia is a decrease in red blood cells (anemia) due to a lack of folate. Folate is a type of vitamin B. It is also called folic acid. Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues.
b) write down the dietary sources of Folic acid
- Legumes (beans, peas, lentils)
- Leafy greens
- Citrus fruits
- Brussels sprouts
- Nuts and seeds
- Beef liver
- Wheat germ
- Fortified grains
c) write down the importance of Folic acid in human body
1)Folic acid helps your body produce and maintain new cells.
2)It helps prevent changes to DNA that may lead to cancer.
3)As a medication, folic acid is used to treat folic acid deficiency and certain types of anemia (lack of red blood cells) caused by folic acid deficiency.
Q2) a) define appendicitis
It is an acute inflammation of vermiform appendix (a small finger like appendage attached to caecum just below the ileocecal valve)
- write down the sign and symptoms of appendicitis
- progressively worsening pain
- painful coughing or sneezing
- inability to pass gas (break wind)
- loss of appetite
- write down the nursing management of appendicitis
- Maintain NPO status.
- Administer fluids intravenously to prevent dehydration.
- Monitor for changes in level of pain.
- Monitor for signs of ruptured appendix and peritonitis.
- Position right-side lying or low to semi fowler position to promote comfort.
- Monitor bowel sounds.
Q3) define ovarian cyst
Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs or pockets in an ovary or on its surface. Women have two ovaries, each about the size and shape of an almond on each side of the uterus.
- write down the causes and management of ovarian cyst
- Hormonal problems. Functional cysts usually go away on their own without treatment.
- Women with endometriosis can develop a type of ovarian cyst called an endometrioma.
- Severe pelvic infections.
▪ Functional/physiologic cysts usually resolve spontaneously
- Uncomplicated cyst rupture (hemodynamically stable) ▫Pain management (e.g., NSAIDs)
- Ongoing hemorrhage, hemodynamic instability, torsion/rupture risk
- Ovarian cystectomy ▫Removal of abnormal tissue only
- Unilateral/bilateral oophorectomy ▫Removal of entire ovary(ies); recommended for menopausal/ postmenopausal individuals, if malignancy confirmed
Q4) define polycythemia
Polycythemia refers to an increase in the number of red blood cells in the body. The extra cells cause the blood to be thicker, and this, in turn, increases the risk of other health issues, such as blood clots.
- discuss types of polycythemia
- PRIMARY POLYCYTHEMIA
Primary Polycythemia occurs when excess red blood cells are produced as a result of an abnormality of the bone marrow. Often, excess white blood cells and platelets are also produced.
- SECONDARY POLYCYTHEMIA
Secondary polycythemia is usually due to increased erythropoietin (EPO) production either in response to chronic hypoxia (low blood oxygen level) or from an erythropoietin secreting tumor.
- RELATIVE POLYCYTHEMIA
Relative erythrocytosis is an increase in RBC numbers without an increase in total RBC mass. Usually, this is caused by loss of plasma volume with resultant hemo-concentration, as seen in severe dehydration related to vomiting and diarrhea.
- STRESS POLYCYTHEMIA
Stress polycythemia is a term applied to a chronic (long standing) state of low plasma volume, which is seen commonly in active, hardworking, anxious, middle-aged men. In these people, the red blood cell volume is normal, but the plasma volume is low.
- write down the nursing intervention of polycythemia
- Monitor for peripheral and cerebral thrombosis.
- Assist the patient for ambulation
- Perform phlebotomy as per doctor’s order
- Administer iv fluids and encourage to take oral fluids
- Administer pain management measures
- Advice to do regular exercise
- Instruct to avoid tobacco
- Advise to maintain skin hygiene
- Avoid extreme temperatures
- Provide psychological support to the patient.
Q5) a) define infertility
Inability to achieve pregnancy with limited intercourse for at least 1 year
- write down the causes of infertility in male and female Causes of infertility in females
1)The most common overall cause of female infertility is the failure to ovulate.
2)Problems with the menstrual cycle, the process that prepares the female body for pregnancy, can lead to infertility.
3)Structural problems usually involve the presence of abnormal tissue in the fallopian tubes or uterus.
4)Infections can also cause infertility in men and women.
5)Implantation failure refers to the failure of a fertilized egg to implant in the uterine wall to begin pregnancy.
6)Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common causes of female infertility.
7)Primary Ovary Insufficiency (POI) is a condition in which a woman’s ovaries stop producing hormones and eggs at a young age.
8)Autoimmune disorders cause the body’s immune system to attack normal body tissues it would normally ignore. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus, Hashimoto’s and other types of thyroiditis, or rheumatoid arthritis, may affect fertility.
Causes of infertility in Males
The most common problems are with making and growing sperm. Sperm may:
- not grow fully
- be oddly shaped
- not move the right way
- be made in very low numbers (oligospermia)
- not be made at all (azoospermia)
Varicoceles are swollen veins in the scrotum. They harm sperm growth by blocking proper blood drainage.
Retrograde ejaculation is when semen goes backwards in the body. They go into your bladder instead of out the penis. This happens when nerves and muscles in your bladder don’t close during orgasm (climax). Semen may have normal sperm, but the semen cannot reach the vagina.
Sometimes a man’s body makes antibodies that attack his own sperm.
Sometimes sperm can be blocked. Repeated infections, surgery (such as vasectomy), swelling or developmental defects can cause blockage. Any part of the male reproductive tract can be blocked. With a blockage, sperm from the testicles can’t leave the body during ejaculation.
Hormones made by the pituitary gland tell the testicles to make sperm. Very low hormone levels cause poor sperm growth.
Sperm carries half of the DNA to the egg. Changes in the number and structure of chromosomes can affect fertility. For example, the male Y chromosome may be missing parts.
Certain medications can change sperm production, function and delivery. These medications are most often given to treat health problems like:
- digestive problems
- high blood pressure
Q6) a) define peritonitis
Inflammation of the peritoneum (The peritoneum is the tissue layer of cells lining the inner wall of the abdomen and pelvis). Peritonitis can result from infection (such as bacteria or parasites), injury and bleeding, or diseases (such as systemic lupus erythematosus).
- discuss the causes of peritonitis
- a burst stomach ulcer.
- a burst appendix.
- digestive problems, such as Crohn’s disease or diverticuliti
- injury to the stomach.
- pelvic inflammatory disease
- write down the nursing management of peritonitis
- Blood pressure monitoring. The patient’s blood pressure is monitored by arterial line if shock is present
- Administration of analgesic and anti-emetics can be done as prescribed.
- Pain management. Analgesics and positioningcould help in decreasing pain.
- Accurate recording of all intakes and outputcould help in the assessment of fluid replacement.
- IV fluids. The nurseadministers and closely monitors IV fluids.
- Drainage monitoring. The nurse must monitor and record the character of the drainage postoperatively.
Q7) write the short note on the following
A computerized tomography (CT) scan combines a series of X-ray images taken from different angles around your body and uses computer processing to create cross-sectional images (slices) of the bones, blood vessels and soft tissues inside your body. CT scan images provide more-detailed information than plain X-rays do.
2) upper and lower endoscopies
Endoscopy is a procedure in which the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is viewed through a fiber-optic camera known as an endoscope, inserted either through the mouth (upper) to scan the esophagus, stomach and small intestines, or through the anus (lower) to examine the large intestine, colon and rectum.
Parenthesisrefer to punctuation marks “(” and “)” used to separate relevant information or a comment from the rest of the text, or to enclose mathematical symbols, or the text inside of these marks. The punctuation marks in the math equation 2x (4+6) are an example of parenthesis.
Cystoscopy (sis-TOS-kuh-pee) is a procedure that allows your doctor to examine the lining of your bladder and the tube that carries urine out of your body (urethra). A hollow tube (cystoscope) equipped with a lens is inserted into your urethra and slowly advances into your bladder.
5) metabolic acidosis
Metabolic acidosis is a serious electrolyte disorder characterized by an imbalance in the body’s acid-base balance. Metabolic acidosis has three main root causes: increased acid production, loss of bicarbonate, and a reduced ability of the kidneys to excrete excess acids.
The most common causes of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis are gastrointestinal bicarbonate loss, renal tubular acidosis, drugs-induced hyperkalemia, early renal failure, and administration of acids.