Concept of Isolation

  • A state of separation between a person or group.
  • Isolation refers to various measures taken to prevent contagious disease from being spread from a patient to other patients, health care workers and visitors, or from other to a particular patient.

Types of Isolation

  • Strict isolation.
  • Respiratory isolation.
  • Contact isolation.
  • Enteric isolation.
  • Protective isolation.
  • Body fluid isolation.

Strict isolation


Suspected Highly infection transmissible bacterial or virulent disease by direct or indirect contact and air born routes of transmission.


Private room

Gown, mask, gloves, hand washing

Double bagged techniques for soiled articles.

Respiratory isolation

  • The indication is droplet transmission. Respiratory isolation is used for diseases that are spread through particles that are exhaled. Those having contact with or exposure to such a patient are required to wear a mask.
  • Requirements:

Private room

Gown, mask, gloves, hand washing

Patients with the same organism generally may share a room.

Labeled plastic bags are used for soiled articles.

Contact isolation


Infectious disease or multiple resistant microorganism that are spread by close or direct contact. Contact Precautions—used for infections, diseases, or germs that are spread by touching the patient or items in the room (examples: diarrheal illnesses, open wounds).


Private room

Gown, mask, gloves, hand washing.

Enteric isolation/enteric precaution


Infectious disease transmitted through

direct or indirect contact with infected feces.


A private room is required if the patient does not practice good hygiene measures.

Hand washing, gloves.

Gowns should only be worn when handling objects contaminated with feces.

Blood & body fluid precaution

  • Blood
  • Body fluid, blood semen, vaginal secretions, CSF, synovial fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, plural fluid, amniotic fluid, and tissues.


-Gloves, Mask, and protective eyes gear/cover.


-Contaminated needles should not be recapped.

-Use puncture resistant containers for used needles and other sharp items.

Relate isolation to the chain of infection Cycle

Source: – patient, employee, Environment, Equipment, visitors.

Method of transmission: –

Air tune, vehicle, vector,

Contact: (direct, indirect).

Host: – Age, immunity, treatment, nutrition, disease, lifestyle, skin injury, socioeconomics condition.

Identify nursing responsibilities in each type of isolation

1.Aseptic techniques

Always use aseptic technique any procedure in hospital

2. Isolation techniques-

Always use aseptic technique for the patient with communicable diseases (use of glove cap, Mask.

3. Fumigation-

Room and articles should be fumigation after death or discharge of patient with infectious disease or should be fumigated after specific interval.

4. Biological waste:

ward’s waste should be discarded in a proper way as per instruction.

5. Destruction of rodent and insects:

Rodent and insects also play a role in the spread of infection. They should be destroyed to prevent infection.

6. Hospital hygiene

The hospital should be well ventilated. The general cleanliness of the hospital maintained sweeping and mopping of the floor should be done, white washing of the walls windows, roofs, doors, should be done.

And other:

Droplet Isolation Precautions

  • Wear A Mask. …
  • Wear Goggles. …
  • Remove PPE and Perform Hand Washing After Completing Care and Leaving the Room. …
  • The Patient Should Be in a Negative-Pressure Room. …
  • Wear an Appropriate Respirator. …
  • Dispose of PPE in the Adjunct Room, Not Another Patient’s Room.