Q1) define cirrhosis of liver write its specific nursing management
Cirrhosis is a chronic progressive disease of the liver characterized by extensive degeneration and destruction of the liver parenchymal cells.
Specific Nursing Management
Nursing management for the patient with cirrhosis of the liver should focus on promoting rest, improving nutritional status, providing skin care, reducing risk of injury, and monitoring and managing complications.
Q2) define pancreatitis what are its clinical manifestations
An inflammation of pancreas is called pancreatitis.
1.Pain in epigastrium region or in left upper quadrant
3.Low grade fever
5.Shock in severe condition
7.Steatorrhea (fatty stool)
8.Decrease bowel movement
11.Low body temperature
12.Bluish discoloration of skin.
Q3) differentiate between peptic and duodenal ulcer
Peptic ulcers are open sores that develop on the inside lining of your stomach and the upper portion of your small intestine. The most common symptom of a peptic ulcer is stomach pain. Peptic ulcers include Gastric ulcers that occur on the inside of the stomach.
A duodenal ulcer is a peptic ulcer that develops in the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). An oesophageal ulcer occurs in the lower part of your oesophagus. Peptic ulcers are open sores that develop on the inside lining of your stomach and the upper portion of your small intestine.
Q4) define peritonitis and write its specific nursing management
An acute or chronic inflammation of peritoneum layer and peritoneal cavity.
Specific Nursing Management
1.Blood pressure monitoring
4.I & O charting
Q5) define Iron deficiency anaemia write down its clinical manifestations and nursing management
Iron deficiency anaemia is a common type of anaemia — a condition in which blood lacks adequate healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body’s tissues. As the name implies, iron deficiency anaemia is due to insufficient iron.
Iron deficiency anaemia signs and symptoms may include:
- Extreme fatigue.
- Pale skin.
- Chest pain, fast heartbeat, or shortness of breath.
- Headache, dizziness, or light-headedness.
- Cold hands and feet.
- Inflammation or soreness of your tongue.
- Brittle nails.
- Assess cardiovascular & respiratory status
- Monitor vital signs
- Recognizing s/s bleeding
- Monitor stool, urine, and emesis for occult blood
- Diet teaching—foods rich in iron
- Provide periods of rest
- Supplemental iron
- Discuss diagnostic studies
- Emphasize compliance
- Iron therapy for 2-3 months after the haemoglobin levels return to normal
Q6) define acute renal failure write down its specific nursing management
Renal failure is defined as a significant loss of renal function in both kidneys to the point where less than 10 to 20% of normal GFR remains.
Acute Renal Failure Nursing Management:
- Monitor for complications.
- Participate in emergency treatment of fluids and electrolyte imbalances
- Provide physical and emotional support
- Monitor fluid and electrolyte balance
- Reduce metabolic rate
- Promoting Pulmonary function
Q7) define urinary incontinence write down its clinical manifestations
Define urinary incontinence
Urinary incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine. It means a person urinates when they do not want to. Control over the urinary sphincter is either lost or weakened.
1.Stress incontinence:increased intra-abdominal pressure (sneezing, coughing, changing position)
2.Urge incontinence:strong urge to void that cannot be suppressed (neurological dysfunction)
3.Reflex incontinence : hyper reflex in the absence of normal sensation (spinal cord injury)
4.Overflow incontinence:over distention of the bladder (spinal cord lesions, tumours, strictures, prostatic hyperplasia.
5.Functional incontinence:cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease)
6.Lactogenic incontinence: Extrinsic medical factors (alpha-adrenergic agents
7.Mixed incontinence:Combination of stress and urge incontinence