Advantages of Breastfeeding

1. Optimal Nutrition:

  • Breast milk is tailor-made for the infant, providing all essential nutrients.
  • Rich in antibodies, boosts the baby’s immune system.Are you a nursing mom? Pay attention to these 3 effective breastfeeding positions | HealthShots

2. Bonding and Emotional Well-being:

  • Skin-to-skin contact during breastfeeding fosters emotional connection.
  • Releases oxytocin, promoting maternal-infant bonding.

3. Lowered Risk of Infections:

  • Colostrum (first milk) contains antibodies and immunoglobulins.
  • Reduces the risk of respiratory, ear, and gastrointestinal infections.

4. Cognitive Development:

  • Omega-3 fatty acids in breast milk support brain development.
  • Linked to higher IQ and improved cognitive function.

5. Reduced Allergies and Asthma:

  • Lower incidence of allergies, eczema, and asthma in breastfed infants.
  • Protective factors in breast milk.

Your Baby and Breastfeeding

6. Digestive Health:

  • Easier to digest than formula, reducing the risk of constipation.
  • Decreases the likelihood of colic and gastroesophageal reflux.

7. Weight Management:

  • Promotes healthy weight gain in infants.
  • Decreases the risk of childhood obesity.

8. Cost-Efficient:

  • Breast milk is free, eliminating the need for formula.
  • Fewer doctor visits due to better health outcomes.

9. Environmental Sustainability:

  • Reduced carbon footprint compared to formula production.
  • Decreases plastic waste from formula containers.

10. Maternal Health Benefits: – Helps with postpartum weight loss. – Reduces the risk of postpartum depression. – Lowers the risk of breast and ovarian cancer.

Does breastfeeding hurt? | baby gooroo


  • Breastfeeding is a crucial foundation for a healthy start in life.
  • Provides numerous advantages for both infants and mothers.
  • Promotes health, bonding, and environmental sustainability.
  • Encouraging breastfeeding contributes to a brighter and healthier future.

Monkeypox (Mpox)

Key facts

  • Mpox, also called “monkeypox,” is a disease caused by a virus called the monkeypox virus, which is a species of the genus Orthopoxvirus. There are two different clades: clade I and clade II.
  • Common symptoms of Monkeypox include a skin rash or mucosal lesions that can last 2–4 weeks, along with fever, headache, muscle aches, back pain, low energy, and swollen lymph nodes.
  • Monkeypox can be passed to humans through direct contact with an infected person, contaminated materials, or infected animals.
  • PCR tests of skin lesions can be used to prove Monkeypox in the lab.
  • Supportive care is used to treat mumps. Some vaccines and treatments for smallpox that have been cleared for use in some countries can also be used for Monkeypox.
  • In 2022–2023, a type called clade IIb spread Monkeypox all over the world.
  • You can avoid getting Monkeypox by staying away from people who have it. Vaccinations can help keep people who are at risk from getting sick.


Mpox, also called “monkeypox,” is a condition spread by the monkeypox virus. It may cause you a fever, a painful rash, and swollen lymph nodes. The majority of people get better, but some get very sick.

Anyone can get Monkeypox. It spreads through touch with people who have it:

  • Individuals, through touch, kissing, or sex;
  • Animals, when shooting, skinning, or cooking them;
  • Materials, such as dirty sheets, clothes, or needles;
  • Pregnant individuals, who may pass the virus on to their developing child.

If you have Monkeypox:

  • Tell anyone you’ve been close to recently
  • Stay at home until all the scabs fall off and a new layer of skin forms
  • Cover the sores and wear a mask when you’re around other people.
  • Don’t touch anyone.

The monkeypox virus, also known as MPXV, is what causes Monkeypox, which used to be called monkeypox. MPXV is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus of the Orthopoxvirus genus in the Poxviridae family. Other viruses in this family include variola, cowpox, vaccinia, and others. Clades I and II are the two groups of genes that make up the virus.

The monkeypox virus was first found in 1958 in monkeys kept for study in Denmark. In 1970, a nine-month-old boy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) was the first person to be diagnosed with monkeypox. Mumps can be passed from person to person and sometimes from animals to people. After smallpox was wiped out in 1980 and vaccinations against it were stopped everywhere, Monkeypox slowly spread through central, east, and west Africa. In 2022 and 2023, there was a worldwide spread. No one knows where the virus comes from in nature, but small animals like squirrels and monkeys can get it.


Person-to-person transmission of Monkeypox can happen through direct contact with infected skin or other lesions, like those in the mouth or genitals. This includes

  • face-to-face contact (talking or breathing),
  • skin-to-skin contact (touching or vaginal/anal sex),
  • mouth-to-mouth contact (kissing), and
  • mouth-to-skin contact (oral sex or kissing the skin).
  • breathing drops or short-range fumes from close touch for a long time

The virus then gets into the body through broken skin, mucous areas (like the mouth, throat, eyes, genitalia, and urethra), or the breathing system. Mumps can spread to other people in the same house and to people who have sex. People who have more than one sexual partner are more likely to get sick.

People can get Monkeypox from animals when they bite or scratch them, or when they hunt, skin, trap, cook, play with dead animals, or eat them. We don’t know everything about how viruses spread through animal groups, and more research is being done.

People can get Monkeypox from infected items like clothes or sheets, from sharps injuries in health care, or in public places like tattoo parlours.

Signs and symptoms

Monkeypox causes signs and symptoms that usually start within a week, but can start anywhere from 1 to 21 days after contact. Symptoms usually last between two and four weeks, but someone with a weak immune system may have them for longer.

Common symptoms of Monkeypox are:

  • rash
  • fever
  • sore throat
  • headache
  • muscle aches
  • back pain
  • low energy
  • swollen lymph nodes.

For some people, the first sign of Monkeypox is a rash. For others, the first sign may be something else.

The rash starts out as a flat sore that turns into a blister filled with fluid. The blister may itch or hurt. As the rash gets better, the sores dry out, harden, and fall off.

Some people have one or two skin blemishes, while others have hundreds or even thousands. These can appear anywhere on the body such as the:

  • palms of hands and soles of feet
  • face, mouth and throat
  • groin and genital areas
  • anus.

Some people also have painful swelling of their rectum, or they have pain and trouble going to the toilet.

People with monkeypox are contagious and can give the disease to others until all the sores have healed and a new layer of skin has grown.

People with weak immune systems, children, and pregnant women are more likely to get sick from monkeypox.

Most of the time, heat, aches in the muscles, and a sore throat are the first signs of monkeypox. The rash of monkeypox starts on the face and moves to the rest of the body, including the palms and soles of the feet and hands. It happens in stages over 2 to 4 weeks: macules, papules, vesicles, and pustules. Lesions have a depression in the middle before they crust over. Then, the scabs fall off. Monkeypox often causes lymphadenopathy, which means that the lymph nodes swell up. Some people can be sick but not show any signs of illness.

In the setting of the worldwide spread of monkeypox that started in 2022 and was mostly caused by the Clade IIb virus, some people get sick in different ways. A rash can show up before or at the same time as other symptoms in just over half of cases, and it doesn’t always spread all over the body. The first spot can be in or around the mouth, in the groyne, or in the anus.

When someone has monkeypox, they can get very sick. For example, germs can get into the skin and cause sores or major damage to the skin. Other complications include pneumonia, an infection of the cornea that causes blindness, pain or trouble swallowing, vomiting and diarrhoea that cause severe dehydration or malnutrition, sepsis, inflammation of the brain (encephalitis), heart (myocarditis), rectum (proctitis), genital organs (balanitis), or urinary passages (urethritis), or death. Monkeypox is more likely to cause major illness or death in people whose immune systems are weak because of medicine or a medical condition. People whose HIV is not well controlled or handled are more likely to get very sick.


Monkeypox can be hard to spot because it looks like other illnesses and diseases. It is important to tell the difference between monkeypox and chickenpox, measles, bacterial skin infections, lice, herpes, syphilis, and other sexually transmitted diseases, as well as allergies caused by medications. Someone with monkeypox might also have an illness that can be spread sexually, like herpes. On the other hand, a child who might have monkeypox could also have chickenpox. Because of these things, testing is important so that people can get care as soon as possible and the disease doesn’t spread further.

The best lab test for Monkeypox is polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which looks for virus DNA. The best diagnostic samples come from the rash itself—skin, fluid, or crusts—and are taken by swabbing it hard. If there are no skin sores, tests can be done with swabs from the oropharynx, the anus, or the pelvic area. It is not a good idea to test blood. Methods for finding antibodies may not be useful because they can’t tell the difference between different orthopoxviruses.

Treatment and vaccination

The goal of treating monkeypox is to get rid of the rash, ease the pain, and keep other problems from happening. It’s important to get care early and in a helpful way to help handle symptoms and keep problems from getting worse.

Getting a vaccine against monkeypox can help keep you from getting sick. The vaccine should be given within 4 days of coming into touch with someone who has monkeypox, or within 14 days if there are no signs.

People who are at a high risk of getting Monkeypox should get vaccine, especially when there is an outbreak. This includes:

  • health workers at risk of exposure
  • men who have sex with men
  • people with multiple sex partners
  • sex workers.

People who have monkeypox should be cared for away from other people.

Tecovirimat and other antivirals that were made to treat smallpox have been used to treat monkeypox, and more research is being done. There is more information about monkeypox vaccinations and how to treat cases.

Self-care and prevention

Most people get better in 2–4 weeks after getting monkeypox. Things you can do to ease the symptoms and keep from spreading the illness:


  • If you can, stay home and in your own room.
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water or hand sanitizer, especially before or after touching sores.
  • Wear a mask and cover sores when you’re around other people until your rash heals.
  • Keep skin dry and covered (unless you’re in a room with someone else);
  • Don’t touch things in shared spaces and clean them often;
  • Rinse mouth sores with saltwater;
  • Soothe body sores with sitz baths, warm baths with baking soda or Epsom salts;
  • Take painkillers like paracetamol (acetaminophen) or ibuprofen.

Do not

  • pop blisters or scratch sores, which can slow healing, spread the rash to other parts of the body, and cause sores to get sick; or
  • shave areas with sores until scabs have healed and new skin is showing (this can spread the rash to other parts of the body).

To prevent Monkeypox from spreading to other people, those who have it should stay at home or, if necessary, in the hospital for as long as they are contagious (from the start of symptoms until sores have healed and scabs fall off). Covering the sores and wearing a medical mask when around other people may help stop the disease from spreading. Using a condom when you have sex will lower your chance of getting monkeypox, but it won’t stop the virus from spreading through skin-to-skin or mouth-to-skin contact.

Source: WHO

Sun causes wrinkles, dark circles and fine lines on the face: How to prevent skin aging?

A long time ago, the lyrics of an Indian film song caught my ears, which went something like this: ‘Dhoop mein nikla na karo roop ki rani, gora rang kala na pad jaye’.

Despite having no attachment to these lyrics, even fair-skinned people like me must have at least learned in this age of childhood ignorance that exposure to strong sunlight damages our skin’s natural color.

The glory of the memory of this song comes to an end. In the year 2023, spring spread its pleasant colors in most parts of Pakistan, but from the beginning of April, it started to feel as if the sun has come to our senses this time.

On the one hand, when everyone outside seems to seek shade from time to time to avoid the heat of the sun, many people, including me, are experimenting with possible ways to protect themselves from this skin-burning sun.

However, while the sun has many benefits, it also has some disadvantages, especially with regard to skin problems.

According to experts, while the gentle rays of the sun in the morning are said to be helpful for obtaining vitamin D, the sun from 11 am to 3 pm is at its peak, and during this time, going out without any protective measures is harmful to the skin. Can be quite harmful.

So, with the changing of the season, what should be done to protect the skin to avoid the harmful effects of the hot sun, which can give glow (shine and freshness) to our skin in every season, including the heat, to know different skin specialists (specialists in diseases) Soon) we spoke to.

Sunblock is as important in winter as it is in summer. ‘

Dr. Maria Syed, Skin Specialist (Dermatologist) at Shifa International Hospital Islamabad, was the first to tell that whether the weather is cloudy or sunny, UV (ultraviolet rays) from the sun are harmful to our skin. Sun block must be applied for protection.

However, the most immediate sun damage depends on your skin tone. The effects of sun damage on the skin are long-lasting and ‘ageing’ occurs with the appearance of wrinkles, fine lines and wrinkles.

According to Dr Maria, ‘darker or tanned complexions are protected from immediate sun damage, while fair-toned sun damage is more immediate and more severe, with skin tanning first. So first of all the color on it gets a little bad and starts getting tanned. According to Dr. Maria, ‘If we talk about our skin, applying sun protection is very important to avoid the effects of aging.’

Before proceeding, let me remind you that there are three types of UV (ultraviolet rays) in sunlight.۔

  • UVA (UVA) is based on many of the ultraviolet rays that reach the Earth’s surface. Due to its ability to penetrate the skin, it is responsible for 80% of skin aging, from wrinkles to facial blemishes.
  • UVB can damage the DNA in our skin, leading to sunburn and eventually cancer.
  • UVC is very effective at destroying genetic material, but ozone in the atmosphere filters it before it reaches Earth and penetrates our delicate skin.

In this regard, Dr. Maria said that UVA affects the upper skin of the skin, it will tan the skin and create shadows, while UVB radiation also affects the inner layer of the skin and goes to the dermis and destroys collagen. Affects and ages.

Dr. Armila Javed is a skin specialist as well as a cosmetologist. She also recommends regular use of sunblock to avoid the harmful effects of the sun.

The use of sun block is very important to protect the skin. Especially in areas where the sun’s rays are very strong and you spend most of your time outside, the use of sunblock becomes very important.

The use of sunblock protects from the rays of the sun that can cause skin cancer. Apart from this, sunblock also protects against ultraviolet rays, which cause dark spots, wrinkles and dark spots on the skin. These rays of the sun aggravate eczema in many people and bring out various problems including skin inflammation in some.

“Lotion for dry skin and gel and cream sunblock for oily skin”

  • To avoid the harmful rays of the sun, experts are calling the use of sun block necessary, but it is also important to understand how to apply it.
  • Not only this, but the different SPFs written on the sunblock also confuse the general public as to which subblock is suitable for them.
  • According to Dr Maria, SPF stands for Sun Protecting Factor and applying sunblock once in the morning and once in the afternoon can provide good protection.
  • According to Dr. Maria
  • For people who have any serious skin disease, their SPF will be recommended by their doctor, but for those who do not have any skin disease and want to avoid sun rays, SPF 30 to 50. Enough is enough.
  • Those with dry skin should apply sunblock available in the form of a lotion, otherwise the sunblock available in the form of a cream will stick to their skin and look ugly.
  • Some sunblocks are labeled as sebum control, so they are meant for oily or oily skin. Mainly it also controls oil and acne.
  • Both cream and gel sun block can be applied for combination or normal skin.
  • For better protection, reapply sunblock every two to three hours to provide good protection.۔

Avoid sun stress by using an umbrella, hat or p-cap and sunglasses

  • We have known and understood the use of sun block and its benefits, but despite this, many people are not able to apply sun block habitually.
  • It should be remembered that the sun does not harm our skin in one day, but when the skin is affected by the sun from childhood, the problem of aging or pigmentation starts appearing in youth.
  • For such people, experts say that while taking care of our health, we have to change our lifestyle to avoid the harmful effects of the sun.
  • According to Dr. Urmila:
  • ‘Avoid going out unnecessarily when the sun is hot.’
  • Cover yourself with a cotton or muslin cloth when going out. If you have taken a dupatta, cover your face with it or shade it.
  • “Using an umbrella is an easy way to minimize the negative or harmful effects of the sun.”
  • Children or young people who ride a bicycle or bike should wear a cap while in the sun. Even in the case of a helmet, the face is protected from the sun, but if you apply sunblock before that, you can get additional protection.
  • “Pedestrians should also wear a hat or p-cap as it can provide shade.”
  • Those mothers who go to pick up or drop their children from school should not only take an umbrella themselves, but also make the children accustomed to take an umbrella from childhood. ‘

Dr. Maria also shared some tips to avoid harmful effects of sun. According to them

  • “Wearing sunglasses while in the sun helps prevent the stress of the sun, including tightening of the skin around the forehead and around the eyes.”
    Always wear gloves while driving and apply shades on the glasses to protect yourself from the sun and its effects.
    Those who are unable to apply sunblock should at least apply a moisturizer to provide some sun protection. The more raw the skin, the more direct the sun’s rays will affect us۔

Dr. Maria says, “When the sun rays don’t reach us directly, we don’t feel so tired on our skin.”

Aloe vera gel is better for skin but not a substitute for sunblock.

Among the remedies available for many skin problems, aloe vera gel is considered an elixir. And it has been used since ancient times to protect skin and hair. However, can it be a substitute for sunblock? In response to this question, Dr. Maria said that aloe vera gel is not a substitute for sun block.

Elvera gel keeps the skin healthy, but this gel cannot act as a sunblock. It is better to apply aloe vera directly from the plant than its gel formula which is available in the market.

Dr. Urmila says that aloe vera contains natural ingredients that are good for skin and hair alike. According to him, its gel is also helpful in reducing the harmful effects of the harmful rays of the sun, but instead of taking the gel directly from the plant, the commonly available gel in the market is easier to use.

According to Dr. Urmila

  • Aloe vera has a soothing effect on the skin and its gel works well as a conditioner and helps retain moisture.
  • Aloe Vera is neither acidic nor alkaline in nature, so it has an effect on the skin that is equally effective for both children and adults and is completely harmless.
  • Aloe vera gel can be used in all seasons, summer and winter.
  • Aloe Vera gel deeply moisturizes the skin and also helps in reducing the harmful effects of the sun’s harmful rays.

How much and how much sunblock to apply before going out in the sun?

Regarding the application of sun block, some people complain that after applying sun block, a gray or white layer appears on the face, which looks ugly. In the same way, people are afraid of the sunblock being washed off the skin during the heat, so some are afraid of washing their face or washing it off.

Dr. Urmila says that some people cannot tolerate sunblock in the form of creams or lotions, or they do not like the smell, so there are alternatives to sunblock for them.

Some people don’t like a gray or white layer of sunblock or find it a difficult task to apply nblock, in which case we recommend subblocks in powder form that are applied to the skin like face powder. Gets excited. ‘

According to Dr Urmila, oral sun protection tablets or supplements also work to protect the skin in the same way that we get the benefits of sun block cream, lotion or gel.

There are chemicals or supplements that protect against the sun’s rays, we call them oral sun protection tablets or sunblock. They are made from chemicals or plant-derived ingredients that, after eating, provide the same protection to your skin that sunblock in the form of lotions or creams.

Oral sunblock also prevents skin damage by reducing the absorption of ultraviolet radiation, preventing collagen fiber breakdown, pigmentation, and even DNA damage. which may lead to cancer. ‘

According to Dr. Urmila, the effect of oral sunblock or supplement is also more and for more protection, additional protection can be given by applying sunblock on top.

According to them, sunblock should be applied at least one hour before going out in the sun.

We usually apply a small amount of sunblock. A teaspoonful should be applied as a layer for the face and neck as soon as we get protection. After two hours, its effectiveness starts to decrease, even if the mouth is not washed.

According to him, oral sunblock is very useful for people with many types of skin problems. Also, they are very important for those who are allergic to the sun.

Courtesy BBC URDU (

Why does our hair turn gray with age?

American scientists claim that they have discovered the reason why hair turns gray with age.

These scientists have claimed that when the cells that keep the hair black lose their ability to mature, the hair begins to turn white.

If these cells mature, they turn into melanocytes, which maintain the hair’s natural color. A team of researchers from New York University has done this research on mice. Mice have the same type of hair cells.

The research scientists claim that it will help start the process of re-darkening gray hair. According to the British Association of Dermatologists (BAD), the study of melanocytes will help find treatments for certain types of cancer and other health conditions.

How does hair turn white?

We grow old and lose hair. It is a normal process of our life which continues throughout our life. Hair grows from hair glands in the skin, where the cells that keep the hair dark are located.

These cells are formed and destroyed regularly. These cells are formed from stem cells.

Scientists at New York University believe that when the process of making these cells from stem cells stops for any reason, people’s hair starts to turn white.

New York University’s Langwan Health team has studied the formation and development of these cells with the help of special scanning and lab techniques. When hair ages and begins to fall out, hair continues to grow. But later the cells of the melanocytes start to slow down.

The stem cells stabilize in place but the melanocytes do not improve. Due to this, the process of color formation stops and the hair starts turning white.

Can white hair turn black again?

“Our study helps us understand how melanocyte stem cells work to keep hair dark,” Dr. Si Sun, a PhD scholar at New York University Langone Health and leader of the research team, told Nature Journal.

This is not the first time that scientists have hoped to turn white hair back to black. However, malnutrition is also considered to be one of the causes of premature graying of hair.

On the other hand, some other researchers believe that stress also causes graying of hair. According to these experts, the graying of hair can be stopped for some time by removing stress.

On the other hand, according to some researchers, there are genetic reasons for gray hair.

Some people start to dye their hair white or gray prematurely. According to Glamor magazine, the silver hair trend is very popular among young women, besides the shiny and pearly color oyster gray has also become quite popular on Instagram.

Hair stylist Luke Hirschson recently told British Vogue, ‘There was a time when people didn’t want to have gray hair, but we don’t associate gray hair with being ‘old’ anymore, a lot of people do.’

After the lockdown, many people have turned gray hair as the business of hair dyeing has ended and many people are happy with this change.

Usually, people try to remove a hair when it turns gray. According to experts, it is not possible to stop other hairs coming from the same cells from turning white.

Damage to the hair follicles also stops the growth of new hair, in which case the hair begins to recede or become bald.

How big is the hair coloring business?

Dr Leila Asfour of the British Association of Dermatologists told the BBC that hair coloring is big business. He further said, ‘By 2030, the global hair color market will reach 33.7 billion dollars. There is clearly a demand in the market for hair color.

“This research gives a clear indication, from a layman’s point of view, that we are one step closer to turning white hair black again, while from a medical point of view, other hair-related issues are becoming more common,” he said. The complications are better understood.

“It will also help us understand the nature of the disease, for example, melanoma or serious skin cancer,” he said.

This research may be helpful in understanding the disease of ‘hair loss’

According to Dr Leela, it may also help to understand a medical condition known as ‘baldness’. In this condition, the body’s own immune system attacks the hair itself and due to this, the hair falls out. Sometimes these patients have white spots.

According to Dr Leela, ‘this research may provide more information about vitiligo, the appearance of white patches on any part of the skin. To maintain the natural color of the skin, scientists can try transplanting hair follicles into the affected area. However, more research is needed on this.

Dr. Yusser Al Naimi, from the British Hair and Nail Society, said that scalp health becomes important as we age for good hair growth.

“Recent research in mice has increased our understanding of hair follicles and the cells that keep hair black,” he added. More information is being gained about the potential of stem cell therapy for hair loss and other conditions.

In such a scenario, the new research could pave the way for future treatments for patients with pigment-producing cell disorders.

Courtesy BBC/URDU

Community Health Nursing-I MCQs/BCQs

BS Nursing

1. The term _____________ is applied to unwanted or discarded waste matter while refuse means the solid discarded material produced by human habitant except human excreta.
a. Wholesome Water
b. Sewage
c. Waste
d. Garbage
e. Refuse

2. Environment refers to:
a. Environ
b. Organisms
c. Living things
d. Surroundings
e. Objects

3. The abiotic components are classified as:
a. Climatic
b. Water
c. Air
d. Food
e. All of the above

4. Rural Communities are the:
a. Places outside cities
b. Places in Suburbs
c. Places in the cities
d. Places adjacent to the cities
e. Places built with the cities

5. _______________ is a state of poor health:
a. Wellness
b. Illness
c. Wellbeing
d. Disease
e. Ill Health

6 ______________ are places inside of the cities:
a. Urban Communities
b. Rural Communities
c. Mauhalla
d. Suburbs
e. Towns

7. The most polluted form of water is:
a. River water
b. Springs
c. Shower water
d. Surface water
e. Rain water

8. The Health Belief was a psychological model developed by:
a. Julian Anderson
b. Neil Harmor
c. Florence Nightangle
d. Adam Jenner
e. Rosenstock

9. Cultural environment include all except:
a. Society
b. Economy
c. Microbia
d. Economics
e. Politics

10. The term Anthrosphere refers:
a. Flora
b. Natural disasters
c. Man made things
d. Fauna
e. Air

11. Fauna is:
a. Lithosphere
b. Atmosphere
c. Transformers
d. Hydrosphere
e. Biosphere

12. __________________________ on the other hand refers to those interventions that take place in a hospital setting such as intravenous rehydration or surgery
a. Tertiary Health Care
b. Primary Health Care
c. Bedside care
d. Secondary Health Care
e. Primitive Health Care

13. The main objectives of Community Health Nursing are optimum individual, and
a. Secondary Health Care
b. Primitive Health Care
c. National Health
d. Community health.
e. Primary Health

14. __________________refers to contaminants that enter a waterway through a discrete conveyance, such as a pipe.
a. Non Point source Pollution
b. Point source pollution
c. Water pollution
d. Food pollution
e. Sewage pollution

15. Surface water is usually:
a. Hard in nature
b. Neutral in Nature
c. Acidic in Nature
d. Soft in Nature
e. Alkaline in Nature

16. Is the intentional movement of _____________from outside a building to the inside.
a. Air
b. Water
c. Soil
d. Food
e. Pollution

17. Absence of fresh air can cause:
a. Heartburn
b. Diabetese
c. Headache
d. Constipation
e. Iron deficiency Anemia

18. Balanced Diet is best defined as :
a. Diet that satisfies your hunger
b. Diet that contains the optimum requirement of food calories and the nutrients.
c. Diet Rich in Fructose
d. Diet rich in Fats and Carbohydrates.
e. Diet rich in Sugar

19. The example of liquid waste is:
a. Plastics,
b. Styrofoam containers
c. Scrap Iron
d. Bleach
e. Chemicals

20. Dumping is the method of waste refusal in which :
a. In costal towns refuse is carried 15 miles within sea and is dumped there
b. In costal towns refuse is carried 5 miles within sea and is dumped there
c. In costal towns refuse is carried 50 miles within sea and is dumped there
d. In costal towns refuse is carried 25 miles within sea and is dumped there
e. In costal towns refuse is carried 0.5 miles within sea and is dumped there

21. ________________ is a modified sanitary landfill. Here mixed refuse should be placed properly and covered by earth.
a. Composting
b. Incineration
c. Controlled Tipping
d. Slow Sand Filter Bed
e. Rapid Sand Filteration Bed

22. The end product, ________________, contains few or no disease producing organisms, and is a good soil builder containing small amounts of the major plant nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates

a. Compost
b. Sudge
c. Sludge
d. Siners
e. Incliners

23. The heat produced during composting, is _______________ or higher
a. 61OC
b. 62OC
c. 64OC
d. 60OC
e. 630C

24. In Bangalore Method the first layer of refuse is about __________ thick
a. 20 cm
b. 10 cm
c. 15 cm
d. 16 cm
e. 17 cm

25. Mechanical Composting is also known as :
a. Anaerobic Method
b. Old Method
c. New Method
d. Aerobic method
e. Refined Method

26. One of the disease caused by rodent is:
a. Whooping Cough
b. Plague
c. Tuberculosis
d. Diabetes
e. Angina Pectoris

27. Plague is caused by Bacteria
a. Yersinia Spirochetes
b. Yersinia Meningococal
c. Yersinia Pestis
d. Yersinia Anopheles
e. Yersinia Ameobic

28. Bubo is formed in
a. Toxoplasmosis
b. Plague
c. Hypertension
d. Pneumonic plague
e. Bubonic Plague

29. Slaughter house is also known as:
a. Private Abattoir
b. Public Abattoir
c. Public Savege house
d. Public Slaughter House
e. Private Slaughter House

30. Animal infections transmitted to man by meat are called
a. Exogenoses Contamination
b. Exogenous Contamination
c. Endogenoses Contamination
d. False Contamination
e. Zoonoses Contamination


Answer key
1. C
2. D
3. A
4. A
5. E
6. A
7. A
8. E
9. C
10. C
11. E
12. A
13. D
14. B
15. C
16. A
17. C
18. B
19. E
20. B
21. C
22. A
23. D
24. C
25. D
26. B
27. C
28. E
29. B
30. E

Health illness continuum

The Health illness continuum is a graphic representation of the wellness of an individual. This concept was first proposed by John W. Travis. According to him a person is not only considered to be healthy based on the absence of disease but also wellness of mental and emotional health.

The individual’s state of health is one of continual change.

The health-illness continuum is a simple concept as each person has gone through almost all parts of the spectrum at least once in a lifetime. According to this theory, a high level of wellness and death due to diseases are located on different sides of the continuum, next to them is the level of good health and illnesses, and in the center, there is a neutral zone.

Why community assessment is necessary in nursing?

  • Community health nursing can play an important role in conducting community needs assessments that provide critical data upon which programming, planning, and evaluation should be based.
  • The community health services developed for any given community should be planned with the specific needs of the community residents in mind.
  • A community needs survey is one method that should be periodically employed to ascertain the specific needs and concerns of community residents.
  • Nursing conceptual models developed by CHNs are very appropriate to the assessment of all aspects of community life related to health and well-being.
  • Comprehensive community needs surveys should include assessment of environmental, psychosocial, and physiological aspects of health as well as indicators of health-related behaviors in the population.

Community health Nursing-II MCQs/BCQs

BS Nursing

1. Sickness is:
A. A social state, signifying an impaired role for those who are ill.
B. A phenomenon in which one or more natural functions of the body are so disturbed
C. A condition of body or some part or organ of body in which its functions are unbalanced.
D. A state in which the individual has no health problem

2. Following are the functions of Pakistan Nursing Council (PNC) except:
A. PNC works closely with the four provincial Nursing Examination Boards (NEBs)
B. PNC inspects educational institutions for approval based on established standards.
C. PNC provides registration (license) to practice to doctors
D. PNC Maintains standards of education and practice
E. PNC sets the curriculum for the education of Nurses, Midwives, LHVs and Nursing Auxiliaries

3. Which of the following is the social environmental need for normal physical and mental health?
A. All of the above
B. Good nutrition and proper rest
C. Regular exercise and recreations
D. Work in accordance with health conditions

4. International conference (Alma Ata) on primary health care was held form _______ in Alma Ata, USSR:
A. September 6-12, 1979
B. September 6-12, 1978
C. September 6-12, 1977
D. September 6-12, 1976

5. Determinants of community health include:
A. Equitable distribution
B. Environment
C. Rehabilitation
D. Treatment of disorders

6. ___________________ is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities.
A. Rural area or countryside community
B. Suburban community
C. Urban community
D. Rural and urban community
E. Community

7. ___________________ can be define as a phenomenon in which one or more natural functions of the body are so disturbed.
A. Infection
B. Disease
C. Illness
D. Sickness

8. According to American Nurses Association _____________ is “a synthesis of nursing and public health practice applied to promoting and preserving the health populations”:
A. Community health
B. Community
C. Public health
D. Community health nursing

9. The ____________ is the most popularly used method of waste disposal used today:
A. All of the above
B. Recycling
C. Disposal in ocean/sea
D. Landfill
E. Incineration/combustion

10. Which one of the following is NOT included in the elements of primary health care (PHC):
A. Provision of safe water and basic sanitation
B. Safe food supply and proper nutrition
C. Appropriate treatment of common diseases and injuries
D. Increasing the adaptation of the individual to his environment

11. A group of people living in the same place or having a particular characteristic in common is:
A. City
B. Community
C. Town
D. Society
E. Provence

12. Basic principles of primary health care include:
A. Contributing to method of diagnosis
B. Prevention and control of non-communicable diseases
C. Decentralization of power
D. Reproductive health needs

13. Following are the components of health education except:
A. Environmental health
B. Emotional health
C. Physical health
D. Infirmity
E. Social health

14. International conference (Alma Ata) on primary health care was held at USST capital of:
A. Waziristan
B. Turkistan
C. Afghanistan
D. Kazakhstan

15. Safe food supply and proper nutrition is:
A. Essentials/Elements of primary health care
B. Goal and objective of primary health care
C. Basic requirement of primary health care
D. Basic principle of primary health care

16. __________________ is barrier to community/ public participation
A. Lack of education or information
B. Poverty/socioeconomic status
C. Cultural minorities
D. Negligence from government

17. A basic health unit (BHU) is for the population of:
A. 4000-11000
B. 3000-4000
C. 5000-10000
D. 15000- 20000

18. Education that promotes an understanding of how to maintain personal health is:
A. Health education
B. Education
C. Learning
D. Community health education
E. Teaching

19. Which of the one the following is characteristics of community health nursing?
A. Increase the average life expectancy
B. Emphasizes wellness rather than illness
C. Decreasing the morbidity rate
D. Providing total health care to improve quality of life

20. An average person must sleep for ____________ hours during night:
A. 4 to 8
B. 6 to 8
C. 7 to 8
D. 5 to 8

21. PHC based on the following principles except:
A. Nation-wide coverage
B. Inter-sectoral coordination
C. Self-reliance
D. Social equity
E. Self-actualization

22. Which is the primary goal of community health nursing?
A. To contribute to national development through promotion of family welfare, focusing particularly on mothers and children
B. To support and supplement the efforts of the medical profession in the promotion of health and prevention of illness
C. To increase the productivity of the people by providing them with services that will increase their level of health
D. To enhance the capacity of individuals, Families and communities to cope with their health needs.

23. Which one of the following is subjective component of wellness?
A. Level of provision of recreational; services
B. Individuals own evaluation of standard of life
C. Level of provision of health services
D. Occupation and employment status

24. Supervises the work of health assistants in district is responsibility of:
A. District health nurse
B. Executive district health officer
C. District health inspector
D. District health officer

25. ______________________ can be defined as a phenomenon in which one or more natural functions of the body are so disturbed.
A. Infection
B. Disease
C. Illness
D. Sickness

26. The Pakistan Nursing Council (PNC) is a regulatory body established in:
A. 1947
B. 1950
C. 1951
D. 1949
E. 1948

27. Devolution of power in health departments:
A. Improve the quantity and quality of health care delivery to the people close to their door step
B. Reproductive health
C. Food sanitation
D. Prevent and control communicable diseases
E. Occupational health

28. Chloramines in the water, like dichloramine and trichloramine, irritate and causes all except one:
A. Heart problem
B. Eye problems
C. Nose problems
D. Skin problems
E. Ear problems

Answer KEY
1. A
2. C
3. A
4. B
5. B
6. A
7. C
8. D
9. D
10. D
11. B
12. B
13. D
14. D
15. A
16. A
17. D
18. A
19. D
20. B
21. E
22. D
23. B
24. D
25. C
26. F
27. A
28. E